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Characterization of CCND1 and TWIST1 as Prognostic Markers with the Mortality Rate of Breast Cancer
Biomed Sci Letters 2018;24:76-86
Published online June 30, 2018;
© 2018 The Korean Society For Biomedical Laboratory Sciences.

Sungwoo Ahn1,§, Sangjung Park2,§, Hye-Young Wang3, Sunyoung Park1, Jungho Kim1 and Hyeyoung Lee1,†

1Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, College of Health Sciences, Yonsei University, Wonju 26493, Korea
2Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, College of Life and Health Sciences, Hoseo University, Asan 31499, Korea
3Optipharm M&D, Inc., Wonju Eco Environmental Technology Center, Wonju 26493, Korea
Correspondence to: Hyeyoung Lee. Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, College of Health Sciences, Yonsei University, 1 Yonseidae-gil, Wonju, Gangwon 26493, Korea.
Tel: +82-33-760-2740, Fax: +82-33-760-2561, e-mail:
§Contributed equally to this work.
Received May 3, 2018; Revised June 11, 2018; Accepted June 14, 2018.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers affecting women worldwide. Although the survival rate of breast cancer has increased, breast cancer still results in a high mortality rate. Breast cancer deaths are caused by metastasis that occurs in organ dysfunction. Recently, there have been many studies on circulating tumor cells (CTCs), which are related to breast cancer metastasis in the blood. Recent studies have demonstrated that some CTCs do not express epithelial markers. Therefore, in this study, total RNA was extracted from blood without separating out the CTCs, and the characteristics of the CTCs were analyzed by RT-qPCR. Cyclin D1 and twist-related protein 1 (TWIST1) are well-known markers for predicting the prognosis of patients with breast cancer. However, few studies have demonstrated the use of CCND1 and TWIST1 in blood as diagnostic and prognostic markers of breast cancer. In this study, patients with late-stage breast cancer had overexpressed CCND1 and TWIST1 than patients with different stages of breast cancer (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively). The relative expression level of CCND1 in survivors was higher than in patients who died (P = 0.06). The relative expression level of TWIST1 in survivors was lower than in patients who died (P = 0.08). Overall CCND1 and TWIST1 were not useful as markers for the diagnosis of breast cancer through blood. However, we showed the possibility of using CCND1 and TWIST1 as prognostic markers, and a large-scale study is needed to confirm the usefulness of these prognostic markers.
Keywords : Breast cancer, CCND1, TWIST1, Circulating tumor cells, Blood, RT-qPCR, Prognosis