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Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Properties of Raw and Processed Fruits and Vegetables
Biomed. Sci. Lett. 2018;24:196-205
Published online September 30, 2018;
© 2018 The Korean Society For Biomedical Laboratory Sciences.

Yuan Yee Lee1,*, Evelyn Saba1,*, Minki Kim1,*, Man Hee Rhee1,†,** and Hyun-Kyoung Kim2,†,**

1Laboratory of Physiology and Cell Signaling and, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea
2Department of Food Science and Engineering, Seowon University, Chungbuk 28674, Korea
Correspondence to: Man Hee Rhee. Laboratory of Physiology and Cell Signaling, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea.
Tel: +82-53-950-5967, Fax: +82-53-950-5955, e-mail:
Hyun-Kyoung Kim. Department of Food Science and Engineering, Seowon University, Chungbuk 28674, Korea.
Tel: +82-43-299-8474, Fax: +82-43-299-8470, e-mail:
*Undergraduate student, **Professor.
Received July 10, 2018; Accepted August 17, 2018.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from metabolic reactions cause oxidative DNA damage, which results in oxidative tissue injury. Therefore, there is an increasing demand in the intake of high antioxidant sources in order to maintain a healthy environment in cells. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Malus domestica (apple), Pyrus communis L. (pear), Daucus carota L. (carrot), Brassica oleracea var. (broccoli), Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage), and Raphanus sativus L. (radish) obtained from the local market. Since these are common fruits and vegetables that are widely consumed, we aimed to investigate their beneficial properties, placing particular emphasis on their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The samples were processed via an indirect heating method and their properties were compared to their raw forms. Based on DPPH and ABTS assays, processed samples showed better antioxidant activities when compared to raw samples and processed pear samples exhibited the best antioxidant activity. The anti-inflammatory activities of the samples were also investigated in LPS-treated RAW 264.7 cells. mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines (iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) was assessed using RT-PCR. As expected, processed samples exhibited better iNOS inhibition when compared to their raw forms and processed broccoli and cabbage samples exhibited outstanding anti-inflammatory effects. The samples, up to 1 mg/mL concentration, did not exhibit cytotoxicity against RAW 264.7 cells as demonstrated by cell viability assays. Altogether, processed broccoli and cabbage samples exhibited the strongest anti-inflammatory properties.
Keywords : Antioxidant, Anti-inflammation, RAW 264.7, Fruits, Vegetables