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2-Nonadecanone Alleviates Depression through Inflammation Relief in SD Rat
Biomed. Sci. Lett. 2018;24:206-212
Published online September 30, 2018;
© 2018 The Korean Society For Biomedical Laboratory Sciences.

Gil-Hyun Lee1,* and Kyung-Yae Hyun2,†,*

1Department of Clinical Laboratory Science, Kyungwon University, Gumi Gyungbuk 39160, Korea
2Department of Clinical Laboratory Science, Dong-Eui University, Busan 47340, Korea
Correspondence to: Kyung-Yae Hyun. Department of Clinical Laboratory Science, Dong-Eui University, Busan 47340, Korea.
Tel: +82-51-890-2683, Fax: +82-0505-182-6877, e-mail:
Received July 26, 2018; Revised August 31, 2018; Accepted August 31, 2018.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Depression is a type of mood disorder characterized by hypochondriasis, decreased appetite, and insomnia. Depression is a disease that affects more than 100 million people worldwide. 2-Nonadecanone (NAC) is a bioactive substance that constitutes Fomes fomentarius, and NAC is expected to have an antidepressant effect. By using the forced swimming test (FST), we investigated the effects of treatment with NAC on immobility subacutely in rats after oral dosing once a day for 2 days. Serum levels of cytokine interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Nuclear factor-2 (Nrf-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthases (iNOS) were analyzed by western blot method. NAC dose-dependently decreased immobility in the FST. NAC dose-dependently decreased FST-induced increase of cytokine levels, as manifested by significantly stronger effects on IL-1β and TNF-α levels at higher doses than the lowest dose of NAC. Western blot analysis showed that Nrf-2 was significantly lower in the NAC-treated group than in the disease-induced group. The iNOS results were also significantly lower in the NAC-treated group than in the other groups. Considering FST results, the antidepressant effect of NAC is effective. Considering the results of cytokine and protein expression, this anti-depressant effect may be related to the anti-inflammatory effect. Therefore, it can be said that the anti-inflammatory effect of NAC increases the antidepressant effect in the FST experiment.
Keywords : Antidepressant agent, 2-Nonadecanone, FST, IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, iNOS, Nrf2