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Antiplatelet Effects of Garlic and Chitosan: a Comparative Study between Fermented and Non-Fermented Preparations
Biomed. Sci. Lett. 2018;24:280-284
Published online September 30, 2018;
© 2018 The Korean Society For Biomedical Laboratory Sciences.

Muhammad Irfan1,*, Minki Kim1,*, Hyuk-Woo Kwon2,**, Man Hee Rhee1,†,** and Hyun-Kyoung Kim3,†,**

1Laboratory of Physiology and Cell Signaling, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea
2Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, Far East University, Eumseong 27601, Korea
3Department of Food Science and Engineering, Seowon University, Cheongju 28674, Korea
Correspondence to: Man Hee Rhee. Laboratory of Physiology and Cell Signaling, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea.
Tel: +82-53-950-5967, Fax: +82-53-950-5955, e-mail:
Hyun-Kyoung Kim. Department of Food Science and Engineering, Seowon University, Chungbuk 28674, Korea.
Tel: +82-43-299-8474, Fax: +82-43-299-8470, e-mail:
*Undergraduate student, **Professor.
Received August 17, 2018; Accepted September 4, 2018.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
The incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is increasing rapidly in developed countries, with CVDs now representing the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Natural products and ethnomedicines have been shown to reduce the risk of CVDs. Garlic is a medicinal plant used throughout the world for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiplatelet activities. Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide obtained from chitin, and derivatives of chitosan have been shown to inhibit platelet aggregation and adhesion. We hypothesized that fermented preparations of these products may possess stronger antiplatelet effects than the non-fermented forms owing to the increased bioavailability of the bioactive compounds produced during fermentation. Therefore, we compared these compounds via in vitro and ex vivo platelet aggregation assays by using standard light transmission aggregometry and ex vivo granule secretions from rat platelets. We found that fermented preparations exerted more potent and significant inhibition of platelet aggregation both in vitro and ex vivo. Likewise, ATP release from dense granules of platelets was also significantly inhibited in fermented preparation-treated rat platelets compared to that in non-fermented preparation-treated ones. We concluded that fermented preparations exerted more potent effects on platelet function both in vitro and ex vivo, possibly as a result of the increased bioavailability of active compounds produced during fermentation. We therefore suggest that fermented products may be potent therapeutics against platelet-related CVDs and can be used as antiplatelet and antithrombotic agents.
Keywords : Platelets, Fermented garlic, Fermented chitosan, Anti-platelet