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Effects of Sea Buckthorn and Boswellia Extracts in Inflammatory Orofacial Pain by Xerostomia in Rats
Biomed Sci Letters 2019;25:131-138
Published online June 30, 2019;  https://doi.org/10.15616/BSL.2019.25.2.131
© 2019 The Korean Society For Biomedical Laboratory Sciences.

Ja-Hyeong Choi1,*, Tae-Heon Kim2,* and Min-Kyung Lee3,,*

1Department of Dental Hygiene, Ulsan College, Ulsan 44610, Korea
2Department of Dental Hygiene, Taegu Science University, Daegu 41453, Korea
3Department of Dental Hygiene, Dong Eui University, Busan 47340, Korea
Correspondence to: Min-Kyung Lee. Department of Biomedical Health Science, Dong Eui University, 176 Eongwangno (Gayadong san24), Busanjin-gu, Busan 47340, Korea.
Tel: +82-51-890-4238, Fax: +82-0505-182-6878, e-mail: lmk849@deu.ac.kr
Received May 2, 2019; Revised June 17, 2019; Accepted June 17, 2019.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
 Abstract

Xerostomia due to the subjective dry mouth feeling that may occur even when the salivary gland function reduction is not objectively confirmed. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not dry mouth is more sensitive to pain in the oral facial area, which is the main cause of dental problems. The natural products used in this study are Boswellia serrata and seabuckthorn, Both natural substances are known as a representative antioxidant substance rich in vitamins. 4-DAMP was injected into the peritoneal cavity of the experimental animals, and 5% formalin was injected into the face to observe the change of inflammatory pain. Boswellia (15, 30 mg/kg) or seabuckthorn (150, 30 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg) after formalin infusion, As a result, pain response was significantly reduced in the drug-infused group compared to the formalin-infused group (*P<0.05). It was also found that the two drugs were more effective when administered together. Based on these results, we confirm that natural extract can be an alternative treatment modality for the control of oral facial inflammatory pain.

Keywords : Xerostomia, Boswellia serrata, Sea buckthorn, Orofacial pain
꽌濡

援ш컯嫄댁“利앹 媛앷쟻 샊 二쇨쟻쑝濡 샇냼븯뒗 援ш컯 궡 엯留덈쫫利앹쑝濡, 븸꽑 湲곕뒫쓽 媛먯냼뿉 쓽븳 븸웾 遺議 삉뒗 븸꽑 湲곕뒫 媛먯냼瑜 룞諛섑븯吏 븡뒗 긽깭뿉꽌룄 諛쒖깮븷 닔 엳뒗 援ш컯吏덊솚씠떎(Napenas et al., 2009). 援ш컯嫄댁“뒗 援ш컯 궡 넻利 諛 옉 옣븷 벑쓣 룷븿븳 議곗쭅쓽 媛먯뿼 諛 蹂묐 벑쓽 떎뼇븳 臾몄젣瑜 빞湲고븯뒗 援ш컯 利앹긽 以 븯굹씠硫, 理쒓렐뿉뒗 끂씤痢듭쓣 鍮꾨’븳 꽦씤쓽 諛쒕퀝瑜좎씠 利앷븯怨 엳뒗 二쇱슂븳 援ш컯蹂묒쑝濡 뿬寃⑥쭊떎. 援ш컯嫄댁“利앹쓣 쑀諛쒗븯뒗 떎뼇븳 썝씤쑝濡쒕뒗 끂솕濡 씤븳 꽭룷 湲곕뒫 븯 諛 꽭룷 닔 媛먯냼, 洹 닔異 湲곕뒫 媛먯냼(Yasuko et al., 1998) 媛숈 눜뻾꽦 蹂솕 벑怨 븿猿 옄쑉떊寃쎄퀎 湲곕뒫 븯뿉 뵲瑜 깮由ъ쟻 썝씤肉먮쭔 븘땲씪 遺덉븞媛먯씠굹 뒪듃젅뒪 媛숈 떖由ъ쟻씤 슂씤룄 諛곗젣븷 닔 뾾떎(Jang et al., 2006). 삉븳 怨좊졊솕 궗쉶濡 씤븯뿬 쟾떊吏덊솚 솚옄쓽 利앷濡 怨좏삁븬젣옱굹 궪솚꽦 빆슦슱젣쓽 蹂듭슜, 븸꽑 吏덊솚, 諛⑹궗꽑移섎즺 벑씠 썝씤씠 맆 닔 엳쑝硫 쁽븯寃 븸꽑 湲곕뒫 媛먯냼媛 利앹긽쑝濡 굹궇 寃쎌슦뿉뒗 뼇 援ш컯吏덊솚씤 移섏븘슦떇利앷낵 移섏<吏덊솚쓣 鍮꾨’븯뿬 援ш컯 罹붾뵒떎利, 誘멸컖蹂솕, 援ъ랬 벑쓽 援ш컯吏덊솚씠 룞諛섎릺뼱 굹궇 닔 엳떎(Kim et al., 2011). 삉븳 援ш컯嫄댁“利앹씠 諛쒖깮븯硫 援ш컯 湲곕뒫씠 젣븳릺怨 옉 諛 뿰븯뒫젰씠 媛먯냼븯뿬 냼솕遺덈웾 벑쓽 쟾떊쟻 利앹긽쑝濡 씠뼱吏湲곕룄 븯硫 떊泥댁쟻, 궗쉶쟻 諛 떖由ъ쟻 븞뀞뿉룄 떖媛곹븳 쁺뼢쓣 以 닔 엳떎(Gerdin et al., 2005; Thomson et al., 2006). 씠윭븳 援ш컯嫄댁“利앹쓽 移섎즺瑜 쐞븯뿬 誘멸뎅 떇뭹쓽 빟援(FDA)쓽 듅씤쓣 諛쏆 빟臾쇱씤 븘濡쒖뭅瑜댄(Pilocarpine)怨 꽭鍮꾨찞由(Cevimeline)씠 몴쟻씤 븸 遺꾨퉬 珥됱쭊젣濡쒖뜥 二쇰줈 泥섎갑릺怨 엳떎. 븘濡쒖뭅瑜댄 臾댁뒪移대┛ 닔슜泥(Muscarinic receptor, M)뿉 옉슜븯뿬 遺援먭컧떊寃쎌쓣 옄洹뱁븯怨, 꽭鍮꾨찞由곗 臾댁뒪移대┛ 닔슜泥 以 M3 넂 寃고빀젰쓣 굹궡뒗 븸꽑 옄洹뱀젣濡 븣젮졇 엳떎(Choi and Lim, 2016). 븘濡쒖뭅瑜댄 5 mg, 꽭鍮꾨찞由곗쓽 寃쎌슦 30 mg쓣 媛곴컖 븯猷 꽭 踰 蹂듭슜븯뒗 寃껋씠 씪諛섏쟻씠硫, 닾빟湲곌컙 理쒖냼 3媛쒖썡 씠긽 蹂듭슜븯뒗 寃껋쓣 沅뚯옣븳떎(Braga et al., 2009). 몢 빟臾쇱 援ш컯嫄댁“利 媛쒖꽑쓣 쐞븳 湲띿젙쟻씤 슚뒫씠 슦닔븳 諛섎㈃ 遺옉슜룄 쟻吏 븡뜲, 쁽옱源뚯 蹂닿퀬맂 二쇱슂 遺옉슜쑝濡쒕뒗 깦(gland) 湲곕뒫쓽 利앷濡 利앷, 삁愿 솗옣, 삤떖씠굹 援ы넗, 뵺袁뱀쭏, 湲곌吏 異뺤냼, 삁븬, 鍮덈㎘ 벑쓽 利앹긽뱾씠 룞諛섎릺뒗 寃껋쑝濡 븣젮졇 엳떎(Aframian et al., 2007). 씠泥섎읆 옣湲곌컙뿉 嫄몄퀜 吏덊솚쓽 利앹긽 媛쒖꽑 諛 셿솕瑜 쐞빐 닾뿬릺뒗 쓽빟뭹쓽 遺옉슜 諛쒖깮쓣 媛먯냼떆궎湲 쐞빐 理쒓렐뿉뒗 援ш컯嫄댁“利 肉먮쭔 븘땲씪 떎뼇븳 吏덊솚쓣 긽쑝濡 泥쒖뿰빟臾쇱뿉 븳 愿떖怨 뿰援ш 利앷븯怨 엳쑝硫, 쓽빟뭹쓽 슚뒫뿉 以븯뒗 빟由ъ쟻씤 슚뒫쓣 굹궡硫댁꽌 긽쟻쑝濡 룆꽦씠 궙 泥쒖뿰臾쇰뱾씠 吏냽쟻쑝濡 媛쒕컻릺怨 엳떎(Braga et al., 2009).

蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗 蹂댁뒪쎇由ъ븘(Boswellia Serrata) 鍮꾪誘 굹臾대줈 씪而ъ뼱吏뒗 궛옄굹臾(Hippophae rhamnoides L., seabuckthorn)瑜 씠슜븯怨, 몢 泥쒖뿰臾쇱쭏 紐⑤몢 鍮꾪誘쇱씠 뭾遺븯寃 븿쑀맂 몴쟻씤 빆궛솕 臾쇱쭏濡 븣젮졇 엳쑝硫 쁽옱 嫄닿컯蹂댁“ 諛 吏덊솚삁諛 紐⑹쟻쑝濡 꼸由 궗슜릺怨 엳떎. 蹂댁뒪쎇由ъ븘뒗 以묐벑룄 겕湲 젙룄쓽 遺꾩 굹臾대줈 二쇱슂 꽦遺꾩 뀒瑜댄럹끂씠뱶 諛 蹂댁뒪쎇由궛씠硫, 蹂댁뒪쎇由궛 냼뿼 諛 吏꾪넻 슚怨쇰 굹궡뒗 쑀슚븳 꽦遺꾩쑝濡 븣젮졇 엳떎(Sailer et al., 1996). 蹂댁뒪쎇由궛 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO)쓽 솢꽦쓣 빐떆耳 깮泥 궡뿉꽌 뿼利앹뿉 諛섏쓳븯뒗 臾쇱쭏 諛 뿼利앹쓣 쑀諛쒗븯뒗 臾쇱쭏씤 interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) 벑뿉 쓽븳 cytokine 깮꽦쓣 뼲젣븯寃 릺硫댁꽌 뿼利앹꽦 吏덊솚씠굹 옄湲곕㈃뿭 吏덊솚뿉 슚怨쇱쟻씤 寃껋쑝濡 蹂닿퀬릺怨 엳떎(Ammon, 2006; Siddiqui, 2011). 븳렪, 궛옄굹臾대뒗 蹂대━닔怨(Elaeagnaceae)뿉 룷븿맂 굺뿽꽦 愿紐⑹쑝濡 鍮꾪誘 C媛 뭾遺븯怨 븘닔吏諛⑹궛쓽 씪醫낆씤 α-linoleic acid 諛 linoleic acid媛 떎웾 븿쑀릺뼱 엳뒗 寃껋쑝濡 븣젮졇 엳뒗뜲(Chen et al., 1990), 씠뒗 솕긽쓣 鍮꾨’븳 뵾遺吏덊솚씠굹 긽泥 移섏쑀젣, 뿼利 諛 沅ㅼ뼇移섎즺뿉 슚怨쇱쟻씤 寃껋쑝濡 븣젮졇 엳떎(Yang et al., 2002). 삉븳 궛옄굹臾 옂쓽 異붿텧臾쇱 p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)瑜 鍮꾨’븯뿬 NF-κB 솢꽦뼲젣瑜 넻빐 LPS뿉 쓽븳 cyclooxygenase-2, TNF-α, inducible nitric oxide synthase, nitric oxide (NO), IL-6 벑쓽 떒諛깆쭏 諛쒗쁽쓽 뼲젣뿉 옉슜맂떎怨 蹂닿퀬릺뿀떎(Jiang et al., 2017). 씠긽쓽 떎뼇븳 뿰援ш껐怨쇰 넻빐 몢 泥쒖뿰臾쇱쭏 怨듯넻쟻쑝濡 빆궛솕 諛 빆뿼利 옉슜쓣 굹궦떎뒗 寃껋쓣 븣 닔 엳떎. 씠윭븳 뿰援ш껐怨쇱 留덉갔媛吏濡, 理쒓렐 蹂 뿰援ъ쓽 꽑뻾 뿰援щ 넻븯뿬 蹂댁뒪쎇由ъ븘瑜 寃쎄뎄 닾뿬븳 뮘 5% formalin쓣 떎뿕룞臾쇱쓽 븞硫대 뵾븯 諛 痢〓몢븯븙愿젅 궡濡 二쇱엯븳 떎뿕뿉꽌 븞硫대 諛 痢〓몢븯븙愿젅 뿼利앹꽦 넻利 뻾쐞 諛섏쓳 媛먯냼뿉 蹂댁뒪쎇由ъ븘 닾뿬媛 슚怨쇱쟻엫쓣 엯利앺븯怨(Lee et al., 2017), 룞씪븳 떎뿕紐⑤뜽뿉꽌 궛옄굹臾 異붿텧臾쇱쓣 寃쎄뎄 닾뿬븳 寃쎌슦뿉룄 쑀궗븳 넻利앷꼍媛먰슚怨쇰 솗씤븷 닔 엳뿀떎(Kim et al., 2017).

씠윭븳 꽑뻾 뿰援ш껐怨쇰 湲곗큹濡 븯뿬 援ш컯嫄댁“利앹뿉 쓽빐 뼢긽맂 븞硫대 넻利앹“젅뿉꽌 몢 媛吏쓽 泥쒖뿰臾쇱쓽 슚怨쇰 솗씤븯怨좎옄 떎뿕쓣 怨좎븞븯怨, 4-DAMP瑜 蹂듦컯 궡濡 二쇱엯븯뿬 援ш컯嫄댁“利앹쓣 쑀諛쒖떆궓 떎뿕룞臾쇱쓣 긽쑝濡 5% formalin쓣 븞硫대뿉 二쇱엯븯뿬 뼢긽맂 뿼利앹꽦 넻利앹쓽 蹂솕瑜 愿李고븯怨, 떒룆 샊 蹂묒슜븯뿬 寃쎄뎄 닾뿬븳 蹂댁뒪쎇由ъ븘 궛옄굹臾닿 援ш컯嫄댁“利앹뿉 쓽빐 뼢긽맂 븞硫대 넻利앹“젅뿉 슚怨쇱쟻씤吏瑜 솗씤븯怨좎옄 븯떎.

옱猷 諛 諛⑸쾿

떎뿕룞臾

蹂 떎뿕 Sprague-Dawley怨꾩쓽 200~230 g쓽 깮썑 6~7 二쇰졊쓽 닔而 씛 伊먮 궗슜븯쑝硫 슚李쎌궗씠뼵뒪(援)뿉꽌 怨듦툒諛쏆븘 룞쓽븰援 룞臾쇱떎뿕쑄由ъ쐞썝쉶쓽 듅씤(R2018-011)쓣 諛쏆븘 吏꾪뻾븯떎. 12떆媛 二 · 빞 鍮쏆쓽 닚솚二쇨린瑜 二쇱뿀쑝硫 23~26꼦 삩룄瑜 씪젙븯寃 쑀吏븯떎. 삉븳 떎뿕룞臾쇱슜 궗猷뚯 臾쇱쓣 옄쑀濡寃 怨듦툒븯쑝硫 뻾룞쟻씤 뼲븬 벑뿉 쓽븳 뒪듃젅뒪瑜 理쒖냼솕떆耳곌퀬 쓽떇씠 엳뒗 떎뿕룞臾쇱뿉 愿븳 넻利앹뿰援ы븰쉶쓽 쑄由ъ쟻 洹쒖젙쓣 以닔븯뿬 떎뿕븯떎.

援ш컯嫄댁“利 紐⑤뜽

援ш컯嫄댁“利앹쓣 쑀諛쒗븯湲 쐞븯뿬 궗슜맂 4-DAMP뒗 떆洹몃쭏 븣뱶由ъ튂궗(Sigma-Aldrich Co., St. Luis, U.S.A)뿉꽌 援ъ엯븯뿬 궗슜븯떎. 4-DAMP瑜 깮由ъ떇뿼닔뿉 씗꽍븯뿬 궗슜븯쑝硫 1 mg/kg쓽 냽룄濡 1 mL쓽 슜웾쑝濡 떎뿕룞臾쇱뿉 蹂듦컯(intraperitoneal) 닾뿬븯떎. 닾뿬 썑 1떆媛 寃쎄낵 떆젏뿉꽌 20% urethane (0.5 mL/kg)쓣 蹂듦컯 닾뿬븯뿬 븞젙쐞 긽깭濡 留덉랬떆궓 떎쓬 硫닿뎄(cotton ball)瑜 援ш컯 궡 븙븯꽑쓽 遺꾨퉬 룄愿遺뿉 쐞移섏떆궎怨 硫닿뎄쓽 븸 씉닔 쟾 썑쓽 臾닿쾶 李⑥씠瑜 遺꾨퉬맂 븸웾쑝濡 媛꾩<븯뿬 30遺꾧컙 痢≪젙븳 寃곌낵 븸 遺꾨퉬웾씠 쁽븯寃 媛먯냼맂 寃껋쓣 솗씤븯뿬 援ш컯嫄댁“利앹씠 쑀諛쒕릺뿀쓬쓣 솗씤븯떎.

떆빟以鍮

蹂댁뒪쎇由ъ븘 異붿텧臾(蹂댁뒪쎇由ъ븘 異붿텧臾 뿴留 遺꾨쭚; Bioprex Labs Co., Ltd., Pune Maharashtra, India) 15, 30 mg/kg쓽 냽룄濡 씗꽍븯뿬 1 mL쓽 슜웾쑝濡 寃쎄뎄뿉 닾뿬븯떎. 궛옄굹臾 異붿텧臾(鍮꾪誘쇰굹臾 異붿텧臾 뿴留 遺꾨쭚; Shanghai Brichtolinternatilnal Co., Ltd., Tibet, China) 뿭떆 150, 300 mg/kg쓽 냽룄濡 씗꽍븯뿬 룞씪븯寃 1 mL쓽 슜웾쑝濡 寃쎄뎄 닾뿬븯떎. 삉븳 몢 빟臾쇱쓽 蹂묒슜 슚怨쇰 솗씤븯湲 쐞븯뿬 蹂댁뒪쎇由ъ븘(15 mg) 궛옄굹臾(150 mg) 異붿텧臾쇱쓣 븿猿 닾뿬븯떎. 媛곴컖쓽 빟臾쇱쓣 二쇱엯븳 썑 30遺 寃쎄낵븳 뮘뿉 븞硫대 넻利 쑀諛쒖쓣 쐞빐 5% formalin쓣 닾뿬븯떎.

븞硫대 뿼利앹꽦 넻利 쑀諛

援ш컯븞硫대쓽 뿼利앹꽦 넻利앸え뜽쓽 씠쟾 떎뿕諛⑸쾿쓣 李멸퀬븯뿬 룞씪븯寃 吏꾪뻾븯떎(Lee et al., 2017). 援ш컯嫄댁“利앹씠 쑀諛쒕맂 떎뿕룞臾쇱쓽 븞硫대 뵾븯뿉 5% formalin (50 μL)쓣 31 gauge쓽 씤뒓由 二쇱궗湲곕 궗슜븯뿬 二쇱엯븯怨, 빟臾쇱씠 닾뿬맂 遺쐞瑜 臾몄瑜닿굅굹 湲곷뒗 뻾쐞瑜 넻利 吏몴濡 媛꾩<븯뿬 吏꾪뻾븯떎. 二쇱엯 吏곹썑遺꽣 珥 45遺꾧컙 5遺꾨떒쐞濡 뻾쐞諛섏쓳쓣 愿李고븯쑝硫, 넻利앺뻾쐞 諛섏쓳 룷瑜대쭚由 二쇱엯쑝濡 쑀諛쒕릺뒗 留먯큹媛먯옉 1李 넻利앺뻾쐞 諛섏쓳(0~10遺, first phase)怨 以묒텛媛먯옉 2李 넻利앺뻾쐞 諛섏쓳(11~45遺, second phase)쑝濡 援щ텇븯뿬 룊媛븯쑝硫(Lee et al., 2014), 떎뿕씠 吏꾪뻾릺뒗 룞븞 臾쇨낵 궗猷 꽠痍⑤ 젣븳븯떎.

넻怨꾨텇꽍

떎뿕寃곌낵뒗 IBM SPSS Statistic ver. 22.0 (IBM Co., Armonk, NY, USA)쓣 씠슜븯뿬 least significant difference 궗썑遺꾩꽍踰뺤쓣 쟻슜븳 씪썝諛곗튂 遺꾩궛遺꾩꽍쓣 븯怨, Sigmaplot 2001 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA)쓣 씠슜븯뿬 洹몃옒봽瑜 굹궡뿀떎. 寃곌낵뒗 쑀쓽닔以쓣 0.05瑜 湲곗쑝濡 븯뿬 룊洹 ± 몴以삤李(standard error of the mean)濡 몴떆븯떎.

寃 怨

援ш컯嫄댁“利앹쑝濡 쑀諛쒕맂 븞硫대 뿼利앹꽦 넻利앸え뜽뿉꽌 蹂댁뒪쎇由ъ븘 異붿텧臾쇱쓽 슚怨

4-DAMP瑜 蹂듦컯 닾뿬븯뿬 援ш컯嫄댁“利앹쓣 쑀諛쒖떆궓 씛 伊먯쓽 븞硫대 뿼利앹꽦 넻利앸え뜽뿉꽌 蹂댁뒪쎇由ъ븘 異붿텧臾쇱쓽 寃쎄뎄 닾뿬뿉 뵲瑜 넻利앺뻾쐞 諛섏쓳쓽 蹂솕瑜 궡렣蹂댁븯떎. 蹂댁뒪쎇由ъ븘 닾뿬 떆 1李 넻利앺뻾쐞 諛섏쓳 4-DAMP + 룷瑜대쭚由 二쇱엯援, 議곌뎔(4-DAMP + veh + 룷瑜대쭚由 二쇱엯援) 洹몃━怨 빟臾 二쇱엯援 媛꾩쓽 슌졆븳 李⑥씠媛 뾾뿀쑝굹, 2李 넻利앺뻾쐞 諛섏쓳뿉꽌뒗 룷瑜대쭚由 닾뿬援곗뿉 鍮꾪빐 빟臾 二쇱엯援(BW 15 mg/kg, 30mg/kg)뿉꽌 넻利앺뻾쐞 諛섏쓳씠 냽룄쓽議댁쟻쑝濡 쑀쓽븯寃 媛먯냼릺뿀떎(*P<0.05) (Fig. 1). 떆媛꾩쓽 寃쎄낵뿉 뵲瑜 넻利앺뻾쐞 諛섏쓳쓽 蹂솕뒗 BW 15 mg/kg 닾뿬 떆뿉뒗 빟臾 二쇱엯 25遺 寃쎄낵 떆젏뿉꽌 媛옣 슚怨쇱쟻쑝濡 넻利앺뻾쐞 諛섏쓳씠 媛먯냼릺뿀怨, BW 30 mg/kg 닾뿬援곗뿉꽌뒗 2李 넻利앺뻾쐞 諛섏쓳 遺遺꾩쓽 떆젏뿉 슚怨쇱쟻씠뿀떎(Fig. 2). 씠윭븳 寃곌낵瑜 넻빐 援ш컯嫄댁“利앹쑝濡 씤븯뿬 뼢긽맂 븞硫대 뿼利앹꽦 넻利앹“젅뿉 蹂댁뒪쎇由ъ븘媛 슚怨쇨 엳쓬쓣 솗씤븷 닔 엳뿀떎.

Fig. 1.

The effect of the boswellia extract (15, 30 mg/kg, BW) on behavioral responses following injection of formalin (5%, 50 μL) into vibrissa pad. BW reduced behavioral responses during the second phase compared with 5% formalin-treated group. *P<0.05, vs 4-DAMP+F


Fig. 2.

Time response curve for the number of scratches responses following injection of formalin (5%, 50 μL) into vibrissa pad 30 minutes after oral administration of boswellia extract. *P<0.05, vs 4-DAMP+F.


援ш컯嫄댁“利앹쑝濡 쑀諛쒕맂 븞硫대 뿼利앹꽦 넻利앸え뜽뿉꽌 궛옄굹臾 異붿텧臾쇱쓽 슚怨

궛옄굹臾 異붿텧臾쇱뿉 쓽븳 넻利앷꼍媛먰슚怨쇰뒗 蹂댁뒪쎇由ъ븘 留덉갔媛吏濡 닾뿬맂 궛옄굹臾댁쓽 냽룄뿉 쓽議댁쟻쑝濡 넻利앺뻾쐞 諛섏쓳쓽 媛먯냼瑜 솗씤븷 닔 엳뿀떎. 룷瑜대쭚由 二쇱엯 썑 1李 넻利앺뻾쐞 諛섏쓳뿉꽌뒗 빟臾 二쇱엯援 媛꾩쓽 쑀쓽븳 李⑥씠媛 뾾뿀쑝굹, 2李 넻利앺뻾쐞 諛섏쓳뿉꽌뒗 룷瑜대쭚由 二쇱엯援곗뿉 鍮꾪빐 빟臾 二쇱엯援(SB 150 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg) 紐⑤몢 넻利앺뻾쐞 諛섏쓳씠 쑀쓽븯寃 媛먯냼릺뿀떎(*P<0.05) (Fig. 3). 씠윭븳 넻利앺뻾쐞 諛섏쓳쓣 떆媛꾩쓽 寃쎄낵뿉 뵲瑜 蹂솕濡 솗씤븯쓣 븣, SB 150 mg/kg 닾뿬 떆뿉뒗 룷瑜대쭚由 二쇱엯 25遺 씠썑뿉 넻利앷꼍媛먰슚怨쇨 愿李곕맂 諛섎㈃뿉, SB 300 mg/kg 닾뿬援곗뿉꽌뒗 2李 뻾쐞諛섏쓳쓽 遺遺꾩쓽 떆젏뿉꽌 쑀쓽븳 넻利앷꼍媛먰슚怨쇰 솗씤븯떎(Fig. 4). 씠윭븳 寃곌낵瑜 넻빐 궛옄굹臾대룄 蹂댁뒪쎇由ъ븘 留덉갔媛吏濡 援ш컯嫄댁“利앹쑝濡 씤븯뿬 뼢긽맂 븞硫대 뿼利앹꽦 넻利앹“젅뿉 슚怨쇱쟻엫쓣 븣 닔 엳뿀떎.

Fig. 3.

The effect of the sea buckthorn extract (150, 300 mg/kg, SB) on behavioral responses following injection of formalin (5%, 50 μL) into vibrissa pad. SB reduced behavioral responses during the second phase compared with 5% formalin-treated group. *P<0.05, vs 4-DAMP+F.


Fig. 4.

Time response curve for the number of scratches responses following injection of formalin (5%, 50 μL) into vibrissa pad 30 minutes after oral administration of sea buckthorn extract. *P<0.05, vs 4-DAMP+F.


븞硫대 뿼利앹꽦 넻利앸え뜽뿉꽌 蹂댁뒪쎇由ъ븘 궛옄굹臾 異붿텧臾쇱쓽 蹂묒슜 슚怨

Fig. 5 Fig. 6 4-DAMP瑜 蹂듦컯 닾뿬븯뿬 援ш컯嫄댁“利앹쓣 쑀諛쒖떆궓 븞硫대 뿼利앹꽦 넻利앸え뜽뿉꽌 냽룄쓽 蹂댁뒪쎇由ъ븘 궛옄굹臾 異붿텧臾쇱쓽 蹂묒슜 닾뿬뿉 쓽븳 넻利앺뻾쐞 諛섏쓳쓽 蹂솕瑜 愿李고븳 寃곌낵 媛곴컖쓽 빟臾쇱쓣 二쇱엯븯怨 愿李고븳 넻利앷꼍媛먯쓽 슚怨쇱뿉 鍮꾪빐 몢 빟臾쇱쓣 蹂묒슜 닾뿬뻽쓣 寃쎌슦뿉 썾뵮 슚怨쇱쟻씤 넻利앷꼍媛먰슚怨쇰 솗씤븷 닔 엳뿀떎 (Fig 4, 5).

씠윭븳 寃곌낵瑜 넻빐 媛곴컖쓽 蹂댁뒪쎇由ъ븘 궛옄굹臾 異붿텧臾쇱쓽 닾뿬뒗 援ш컯嫄댁“利앹쑝濡 씤븯뿬 諛쒖깮맂 븞硫대 뿼利앹꽦 넻利앹“젅뿉 슚怨쇱쟻씠硫, 냽룄濡 몢 媛吏 臾쇱쭏쓣 蹂묒슜 닾뿬븯쓣 븣 넻利앹“젅슚怨쇨 뜑 슦닔븿쓣 븣 닔 엳뿀떎.

Fig. 5.

4-DAMP was administered intraperitoneally to the oral cavity, changes in the pain behavior response to oral administration of low concentrations of boswellia and sea buckthorn in the modified acute pain model. *P<0.05, vs 4-DAMP+F.


Fig. 6.

BW 15 mg/kg and SB 150 mg/kg were administered, the response was found to be effective at 25~40 minutes after administration of BW+SB, The orofacial pain relief effect was higher at the time of the minute. *P<0.05, vs 4-DAMP+F.


怨 李

援ш컯븞硫대 넻利(orofacial pain) 援ш컯 궡 寃쎌“吏 諛 뿰議곗쭅怨 愿젴맂 넻利앹쓣 룷븿븯뒗 寃껋쑝濡, 媛쒓뎄 諛 옉 옣븷瑜 珥덈옒븯硫, 痢〓몢븯븙愿젅 옣븷(temporomandibular disorder, TMD)굹 궪李⑥떊寃쏀넻怨 媛숈 떊寃쎈퀝利앹꽦 넻利 肉 븘땲씪 몢넻씠굹 洹쇨낏寃⑹꽦, 떊寃쎄퀎 벑쓽 룞넻쑝濡 굹굹뒗 寃껋쑝濡 븣젮졇 엳떎(Rhodus, 1988). 씠윭븳 移섎즺瑜 쐞븯뿬 媛 鍮꾩뒪뀒濡쒖씠뱶꽦 빟臾(nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug, NSAID)쓣 泥섎갑 諛쏆븘 蹂듭슜븯뒗뜲, 씠 빟臾쇱 쎇뼱궃 吏꾪넻 슚怨쇰 湲곕븷 닔 엳吏留 쐞옣愿 룆꽦씠굹 옣湲곌컙 蹂듭슜쑝濡 씤븳 삁쟾利 벑쓽 遺옉슜씠 諛쒖깮븷 닔 엳뼱 蹂듭슜뿉 二쇱쓽媛 븘슂븯떎(Kim and Lee, 2015). 씠윭븳 遺옉슜쓣 理쒖냼솕븯湲 쐞빐 理쒓렐뿉뒗 鍮꾧탳쟻 遺옉슜씠 쟻 泥쒖뿰臾쇱쭏뿉 븳 愿떖씠 利앷븯怨 엳뒗 떎젙씠떎.

蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗 理쒓렐 빆궛솕 諛 빆뿼利 벑 떎뼇븳 슚뒫쑝濡 二쇰ぉ諛쏄퀬 엳뒗 蹂댁뒪쎇由ъ븘 諛 궛옄굹臾 異붿텧臾쇱쓣 援ш컯嫄댁“利앹뿉 쓽빐 쑀諛쒕맂 븞硫대 뿼利앹꽦 넻利앸え뜽뿉꽌 뿭븷쓣 洹쒕챸븯怨좎옄 븯떎. 癒쇱, 蹂댁뒪쎇由ъ븘 諛 궛옄굹臾 異붿텧臾쇱쓣 寃쎄뎄 닾뿬븯뿬 굹굹뒗 븞硫대 넻利앹뿉 誘몄튂뒗 쁺뼢쓣 솗씤븳 寃곌낵, 議곌뎔뿉 鍮꾪빐 蹂댁뒪쎇由ъ븘 諛 궛옄굹臾 異붿텧臾 닾뿬援곗뿉꽌 냽룄쓽議댁쟻쑝濡 넻利앹씠 媛먯냼븯떎. 씠윭븳 寃곌낵뒗 理쒓렐 蹂닿퀬릺怨 엳뒗 泥쒖뿰臾쇱뿉 쓽븳 븞硫대 넻利앹“젅 뿰援ш껐怨쇰뱾怨 쑀궗븳 寃껋쑝濡, 룷瑜대쭚由곗쑝濡 쑀룄븳 씛 伊먯쓽 븞硫대 넻利앸え뜽뿉꽌 而ㅽ뵾깮肄 異붿텧臾쇱쓣 30, 60 mg/mL쓽 냽룄濡 닾뿬븯쓣 븣 냽룄쓽議댁쟻쑝濡 넻利앺뻾쐞 諛섏쓳씠 쑀쓽븯寃 媛먯냼맂떎뒗 寃껋쓣 蹂닿퀬븯怨(Lee et al., 2018), 솉궪 諛 쓳궪 異붿텧臾쇱씠 媛꾧낵 떊옣뿉 遺옉슜씠 諛쒖깮릺吏 븡쑝硫댁꽌 븞硫대 넻利앸え뜽뿉꽌 넻利앸컲쓳쓣 쑀쓽븯寃 媛먯냼떆耳곗쑝硫, 씠뒗 Nrf2쓽 諛쒗쁽쓽 議곗젅쓣 넻빐꽌씪怨 蹂닿퀬븯떎(Lee et al., 2017). 씠윭븳 寃곌낵뱾쓣 諛뷀깢쑝濡 泥쒖뿰臾쇱 븞硫대 넻利앹쓽 吏곸젒쟻씤 議곗젅뿉 愿븳 뿰援 肉먮쭔 븘땲씪, 援ш컯쓽 떎뼇븳 吏덈퀝뿉꽌 쑀쓽븳 뿭븷쓣 븳떎뒗 蹂닿퀬媛 袁몄엳 諛쒗몴릺怨 엳떎. 理쒓렐 븳 뿰援ъ뿉 뵲瑜대㈃, 꽦씤쓣 긽쑝濡 諛붽 諛 媛덇렐 異붿텧臾쇱쓽 닾뿬 썑 븸遺꾨퉬슚怨쇰 鍮꾧탳븳 뿰援ъ뿉꽌, 利앸쪟닔瑜 癒멸툑怨 엳쓣 븣 븸 遺꾨퉬뒗 0.41±0.021 mL/min, 諛붽 異붿텧臾 닾뿬 떆뿉뒗 20% 젙룄 利앷븳 0.49±0.029 mL/min씠쑝硫 媛덇렐 異붿텧臾쇱 0.54±0.014 mL/min쑝濡 빟 32%媛 利앷븳떎뒗 寃껋씠 蹂닿퀬릺뿀떎(Jung et al., 2018). 援ш컯嫄댁“利앹 씤援ъ쓽 利앷 븿猿 쑀蹂묐쪧씠 湲됱쬆븯怨 엳뒗 援ш컯쓽 二쇱슂 吏덊솚쑝濡 援ш컯쓽 嫄댁“媛먯 移섏븘슦떇利앹씠굹 移섏<吏덊솚쓣 媛냽솕떆궎뒗 썝씤씠 릺怨, 蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌泥섎읆 븞硫대쓽 넻利앹쓣 뼢긽떆궎뒗 湲곗吏덊솚쑝濡 옉슜븷 닔룄 엳떎. Fox (1987)쓽 뿰援ъ뿉 쓽븯硫 援ш컯嫄댁“利앹쓣 샇냼븯뒗 솚옄援곗뿉꽌 븸 遺꾨퉬쓽 媛먯냼濡 씤븳 湲곕뒫 븯濡 씠李⑥쟻 吏솚씤 移섏븘 슦떇씠 諛쒕퀝릺뒗 鍮꾩쑉씠 넂떎怨 諛쒗몴븯떎. 삉븳 議곌뎔뿉 鍮꾪븯뿬 援ш컯嫄댁“媛먯쓣 샇냼븯뒗 援곗뿉꽌 냼솕遺덈웾, 遺덈㈃利, 쐞옣뿼 벑怨 媛숈 吏덊솚쓣 샇냼븯뒗 鍮꾩쑉씠 留롮븯떎뒗 Oh 벑쓽 (2001) 뿰援щ 넻븯뿬 援ш컯嫄댁“利앷낵 넻利앹씠 愿젴릺뼱 엳쓬쓣 솗씤븷 닔 엳뿀떎. 뵲씪꽌, 븸쓽 쑀異쒕웾, 젏룄 諛 pH 벑쓽 議곗젅쓣 쐞빐 떎뼇븳 뿰援ш 씠猷⑥뼱졇빞 븷 寃껋씠怨, 吏냽쟻씤 슚怨쇰 굹궡湲 쐞빐 옣湲곌컙 궗슜븿뿉 엳뼱꽌 鍮꾧탳쟻 遺옉슜씠 쟻 泥쒖뿰臾쇱씠 뿰援щ긽씠 릺뼱빞 븳떎怨 깮媛곷맂떎.

蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌 궗슜맂 泥쒖뿰臾쇱씤 蹂댁뒪쎇由ъ븘쓽 슚뒫 11-keto-b-boswellic acid (KBA) acetyl-11-keto-b-boswellic acid (AKBA)쓣 룷븿븳 꽑깮쟻 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO)쓽 議곗젅뿉 쓽븳 寃껋쑝濡 븣젮졇 엳뒗뜲, Kiela 벑쓽 뿰援ъ뿉 쓽븯硫 KBA 삉뒗 AKBA媛 利앷븯硫 뿼利앹꽦 吏덊솚쓽 諛쒖깮 諛 吏꾪뻾뿉꽌 궗씠넗移댁씤쓽 議곗젅뿉 愿뿬븯뒗 씤옄씤 The nuclear transcription factor (NF-κB)쓽 諛쒗쁽씠 媛먯냼맂떎뒗 寃껋씠 蹂닿퀬릺뿀떎(Abdel-Tawab et al., 2011). 삉븳 쐞옣 諛 떖삁愿 怨꾪넻쓽 넻利앸え뜽뿉꽌 鍮꾩뒪뀒濡쒖씠뱶꽦 빆뿼利앹젣(NSAIDs)뿉 鍮꾪븯뿬 蹂댁뒪쎇由ъ븘쓽 넻利 빆젰씠 뜑 슚怨쇱쟻씠씪뒗 뿰援ш껐怨(Prabhavathi et al., 2014)룄 씠윭븳 蹂댁뒪쎇由ъ븘쓽 넻利앹“젅젣濡쒖뜥쓽 媛뒫꽦쓣 엯利앺븯뒗 寃껋쑝濡 蹂댁뿬吏꾨떎. 蹂 떎뿕뿉꽌룄 蹂댁뒪쎇由ъ븘쓽 二쇱엯 援ш컯嫄댁“利앹뿉 쓽빐 쑀諛쒕맂 븞硫대 뿼利앹꽦 넻利앷꼍媛먯뿉 슚怨쇱쟻씤 寃껋쓣 솗씤븯怨, 씠윭븳 寃곌낵瑜 諛뷀깢쑝濡 蹂댁뒪쎇由ъ븘媛 뿼利앹쭏솚씠굹 넻利앹쓽 諛쒖깮 諛 議곗젅뿉 슚怨쇱쟻씤 빟臾쇰줈 쟻슜맆 닔 엳쓬쓣 떆궗븳떎. 씠 留덉갔媛吏濡, 궛옄굹臾 異붿텧臾 뿭떆 뿼利 諛 넻利앹“젅뿉 슚怨쇱쟻씠씪뒗 寃껋쓣 엯利앺븳 떎뼇븳 뿰援ш껐怨쇰뱾씠 蹂닿퀬릺뿀떎. 궛옄굹臾댁쓽 깮솕븰쟻 援ъ꽦뿉 愿븳 뿰援ъ뿉 뵲瑜대㈃ 궛옄굹臾닿 븿쑀븯怨 엳뒗 떎뼇븳 醫낅쪟쓽 鍮꾪誘, 誘몃웾 썝냼, 븘誘몃끂궛 諛 떎뼇븳 깮由 솢꽦 臾쇱쭏씠 떎슜룄쓽 빟由ы븰쟻 솢룞쓣 떞떦븯怨 엳쑝硫, 궛옄굹臾 異붿텧臾쇱 媛먯뿼쓣 諛⑹븯怨 빆궛솕 臾쇱쭏씠 뭾遺븯뿬 뿼利 긽깭瑜 媛쒖꽑떆궎뒗 寃껋쑝濡 蹂닿퀬릺뿀떎(Xing et al., 2002). 삉븳, 궛옄굹臾대뒗 linoleic怨 linolenic acid쓽 븿웾씠 넂怨 빆궛솕 듅꽦뿉 긽쓳븯뒗 移대줈떚끂씠뱶, flavonoids 諛 phytosterols瑜 룷븿븳 넂 pyhtochemical material쓣 떎웾쑝濡 븿쑀븯怨 엳뼱꽌 媛먯냼맂 glutathione (GSH)怨 glutathione peroxidase (GPx) 媛숈 꽭룷 궡 빆궛솕 臾쇱쭏쓣 쉶蹂듭떆耳 ROS/free쓽 씪뵒移 깮궛쓽 뼲젣븳떎怨 븣젮졇 엳떎(Geetha et al., 2003). 留덉갔媛吏濡, Richa 벑 (2013)쓽 뿰援ъ뿉 쓽븯硫, 以묓삎 옟醫 꽦寃 20留덈━瑜 긽쑝濡 뜳궗硫뷀넀(dexamethasone) 1 mg/kg쓣 닾뿬븯뿬 쐞沅ㅼ뼇쓣 쑀諛쒗븳 紐⑤뜽뿉꽌 궛옄굹臾 異붿텧臾 닾뿬뿉 쓽븳 쑀쓽븳 넻利앷꼍媛먰슚怨쇨 엯利앸릺뿀떎. 씠 뜑遺덉뼱 떇슃쓽 쁽븳 媛쒖꽑씠 愿李곕릺뿀쑝硫, 蹂 옞삁 寃궗뿉꽌룄 뼇꽦씠뿀쑝硫 삁泥 깮솕븰 寃궗뒗 뿰援 쟾諛섏뿉 嫄몄퀜 젙긽쟻씤 깮由ы븰쟻 븳怨 궡뿉꽌 쑀吏릺뿀떎. 삉 떎瑜 뿰援ъ뿉 쓽븯硫, 떎뿕룞臾쇱쓽 뵾遺議곗쭅뿉 긽泥섎 궡뼱 궛옄굹臾 옂 異붿텧臾쇱쓣 빐떦 議곗쭅뿉 룄룷븯硫 쑁븘議곗쭅쓽 빆궛솕 닔以씠 利앷릺뼱 긽泥섏튂쑀슚怨쇨 굹궃떎뒗 寃껋씠 蹂닿퀬릺뿀떎(Gupta et al., 2005). 씠瑜 寃곌낵뱾怨 留덉갔媛吏濡 蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌룄 궛옄굹臾 異붿텧臾쇱씠 援ш컯嫄댁“利앹뿉 쓽빐 뼢긽맂 븞硫대 뿼利앹꽦 넻利앹쓣 쑀쓽븯寃 議곗젅븿쓣 諛앺삍怨, 씠윭븳 寃곌낵뒗 궛옄굹臾댁쓽 넻利 諛 뿼利앹“젅젣濡쒖꽌쓽 媛뒫꽦쓣 蹂댁뿬二쇰뒗 寃껋쑝濡 깮媛곷맂떎.

蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌 씎誘몃줈슫 젏, 몢 媛吏쓽 빟臾쇱쓣 냽룄濡 蹂묒슜뻽쓣 븣 媛곴컖쓽 떒룆 닾뿬 슚怨쇱뿉 鍮꾪빐 썾뵮 쑀쓽븳 넻利앷꼍媛먰슚怨쇰 솗씤븳 寃껋씠떎. 빟臾쇱쓽 슚怨쇰 洹밸솕븯湲 쐞빐 怨좊냽룄쓽 떒룆 二쇱엯 議곗쭅怨 떊寃쎌쓽 넀긽쓣 쑀諛쒗븯嫄곕굹 삤엳젮 빟슚쓽 諛섏쟾쓣 굹궡뒗 寃쎌슦룄 엳떎. 理쒓렐뿉뒗 슱듃씪뀑젙怨 媛숈 빟由ъ옉슜 湲곗쟾씠 紐낇솗븳 빟臾쇱쓽 샎빀젣젣媛 媛쒕컻릺뒗 벑 遺옉슜쓽 踰붿쐞瑜 以꾩씠硫댁꽌 쑀슚븳 빟슚瑜 솗蹂댄븯젮뒗 뿰援 諛 媛쒕컻씠 利앷릺怨 엳떎. 떎뿕쟻쑝濡 蹂닿퀬맂 븳 삁濡, 떊寃 蹂묒쬆꽦 넻利 룞臾쇰え뜽쓣 씠슜븯뿬 gabapentin怨 milnacipran쓽 蹂묒슜 닾뿬뒗 媛곴컖쓽 떒룆 닾뿬뿉 쓽빐 슚怨쇱쟻쑝濡 利앷맂 넻利앷꼍媛먰슚怨쇰 굹궡뿀쓬씠 蹂닿퀬릺뿀떎. 씪遺 뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗 쑀슚븳 솕븰 빟젣 泥쒖뿰臾쇱쓽 蹂묒슜쓣 떆룄븯뿬 醫뗭 뿰援ш껐怨쇰 蹂댁뿬二쇨린룄 븯뒗뜲, 理쒓렐뿉 誘몄뿭닚굹臾댁쓽 二쇱슂 꽦遺꾩씤 듃由쏀넧由щ뱶(triptolide) nitric oxide (NO)쓽 빀꽦 뼲젣젣씤 N-nitro-L-arginine Methyl Ester쓽 蹂묒슜 닾뿬媛 씛 伊먯쓽 痢〓몢븯븙愿젅 넻利앹“젅뿉 슚怨쇱쟻씠씪뒗 寃껋씠 솗씤릺뿀떎(Kim and Lee, 2015). 씠윭븳 寃곌낵 쑀궗븯寃, 蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌룄 몢 媛吏 泥쒖뿰臾쇱쓽 蹂묒슜 닾뿬뿉 쓽빐 븞硫대 뿼利앹꽦 넻利앹씠 슚怨쇱쟻쑝濡 媛먯냼릺뒗 寃껋쓣 솗씤븯떎. 臾쇰줎 뼢 썑 泥쒖뿰臾쇱쓽 옉슜湲곗쟾뿉 愿븳 援ъ껜쟻씤 뿰援ш 異붽릺뼱빞 븯硫, 吏냽쟻씤 닾뿬瑜 쐞빐꽌뒗 븞젙쟻씤 쟻슜踰붿쐞瑜 솗蹂댄븯뒗 寃껋씠 븘닔쟻씠씪怨 깮媛곷맂떎.

씠긽쓽 뿰援ш껐怨쇰 醫낇빀빐蹂대㈃, 蹂댁뒪쎇由ъ븘 궛옄굹臾 異붿텧臾쇱 援ш컯嫄댁“利앹쑝濡 씤븯뿬 뼢긽맂 븞硫대 뿼利앹꽦 넻利앹쓣 쑀쓽븯寃 媛먯냼떆耳곗쑝硫, 몢 빟臾쇱쓽 냽룄 蹂묒슜 닾뿬 떆뿉뒗 媛곴컖쓽 떒룆 닾뿬뿉 鍮꾪빐 뜑슧 슚怨쇱쟻쑝濡 넻利앹“젅슚怨쇰 굹궡뿀떎. 씠윭븳 寃곌낵뱾쓣 넻빐 븞硫대 뿼利앹꽦 넻利앹“젅쓣 쐞븳 빟臾쇰줈뜥 蹂댁뒪쎇由ъ븘 諛 궛옄굹臾 異붿텧臾쇱씠 移섎즺젣濡 젣떆맆 닔 엳쑝硫, 빟臾쇱쓽 蹂묒슜 닾뿬뿉 쓽븳 긽샇옉슜 빟由ы븰쟻 媛移섎 뜑슧 利앷떆궗 닔 엳쓣 寃껋쑝濡 궗猷뚮맂떎.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT) (NRF-2017R1C1B5076722).

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

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