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Herbal Black Vinegar and the Anti-obesity Complications in vivo
Biomed Sci Letters 2018;24:380-389
Published online December 31, 2018;  https://doi.org/10.15616/BSL.2018.24.4.380
© 2018 The Korean Society For Biomedical Laboratory Sciences.

Dongsub Lee1,*, and Sangwook Park2,†,*

1Department of Healthcare & Biotechnology, College of Aeroservice, Kyungwoon University, Gumi 39160, Korea,
2Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, College of Health and Nurse, Kyungwoon University, Gumi 39160, Korea
Correspondence to: Sangwook Park. Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, College of Health and Nurse, Kyungwoon University, Gumi 39160, Korea.Tel: +82-54-479-1282, Fax: +82-54-479-1280, e-mail: spark367@ikw.ac.kr
Received September 17, 2018; Revised November 21, 2018; Accepted December 10, 2018.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
 Abstract

Black vinegar has been traditionally used for supplemental flavoring on food, and commercialized beverages. Here, to investigate the effects on in vivo anti-obesity complications of black vinegar produced with herbal extracts, we evaluated on the biochemical effects of high-fat diet (HFD) induced mice compared to control fed ones. After a 84-day experiment HFD mice had higher (P < 0.05) weight gains, relative abdominal-fat pads, blood glucose level, serum/liver lipids, and serum nephron indices. Continuous oral treatment of three different concentration of herbal black vinegar (HBV; stock, 2-fold, and 4-fold diluted solution) to HFD mice showed that HBV reduced marked obesity (fat depositions, adipocyte hypertrophy), hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia (serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL- cholesterol levels), enhanced liver function (AST/ALT), and kidney function (BUN, creatine levels), respectively. Thus, HBV is expected to serve as an efficient and functional supplemental ingredients or food for the alleviation of obesity syndrome.

Keywords : HBV (Herbal black vinegar), Anti-obesity, High-fat diet (HFD)
꽌 濡

쟾꽭怨꾩쟻쑝濡 鍮꾨쭔 援젣쟻씤 끂젰怨 씤떇쓽 蹂솕媛 利앸릺뿀쓬뿉룄 遺덇뎄븯怨 怨꾩냽빐꽌 利앷븯怨 엳떎. 蹂몄쭏쟻쑝濡 鍮꾨쭔 怨쇱엵꽠痍, 옒紐삳맂 떇뒿愿, 궗쉶쟻 솢룞웾 媛먯냼 쑀쟾쟻, 궗쉶寃쎌젣쟻, 솚寃쎌쟻 슂씤怨 寃고빀븯뿬 뿉꼫吏궗쓽 빆긽꽦뿉 臾몄젣媛 諛쒖깮븯뿬 씪뼱궃떎(Mitchell et al., 2005; Monasta et al., 2010). 理쒓렐뿉, 젣2삎 떦눊蹂묒쑝濡 븣젮吏 궗利앺썑援곌낵 愿젴맂 鍮꾨쭔 諛쒖깮瑜좎씠 쟾꽭怨꾩쟻쑝濡 利앷븯怨 엳뒗뜲 洹 諛쒕퀝瑜좎 怨좎뭡濡쒕━ 쓬떇꽠痍⑥ 떊泥 鍮꾪솢룞꽦쓽 寃곌낵濡 蹂댁씤떎(James et al., 2001). 2025뀈뿉뒗 몢 諛 씠긽 利앷븯뿬 3뼲紐낆씠 씠瑜 寃껋쑝濡 異붿젙븳떎(Zimmet, 2003). 吏諛⑹궛쓽 怨쇰떎꽠痍⑤뒗 留롮 議곗쭅, 듅엳 吏諛⑹“吏곸뿉꽌 吏吏덈텇빐媛 利앷븯寃 릺뼱 듃由ш由ъ꽭씪씠뱶(以묒꽦吏諛) 異뺤쟻쓣 珥덈옒븳떎. 吏諛⑹궛쓽 닚솚씠 利앷븯硫댁꽌 씤뒓由 빆꽦怨 븿猿 吏諛⑹꽭룷쓽 吏諛⑹궛 닚솚씠 利앷븯硫댁꽌 洹쇱쑁, 痍뚯옣, 媛 媛숈 鍮 吏諛⑹궛 議곗쭅뿉룄 吏諛⑹궛씠 뙎씠寃 맂떎. 伊먯쓽 鍮꾨쭔 紐⑤뜽 怨좎諛 떇떒뿉 쓽빐 媛쒕컻릺뿀怨 怨좏삁떦, 씤뒓由 빆꽦, 媛꾩꽦吏吏(hepatic steatosis), 媛踰쇱슫 떦눊꽦 肄⑺뙠利, 怨좎諛⑹쬆쓽 듅吏뺤쓣 媛吏怨 엳떎(Yun et al., 2007). 怨좊遺꽣 떇珥덈뒗 떎뼇븳 쓬떇 삉뒗 빟슜 떇뭹쑝濡 궗슜릺뼱 솕떎. 쁽뒗 씪諛섏쓬떇쓽 蹂댁〈옱濡쒖꽌 쓬떇뿉 뼢誘몃 뜑빐二쇰뒗 뼇뀗쑝濡쒖뜥 꽭怨 뿬윭 臾명솕沅뚯뿉꽌 븷슜릺뼱 솕떎(Johnston and Gaas, 2006). 삉븳, 媛먯뿼吏덊솚, 떖삁愿 吏덊솚, 鍮꾨쭔 벑뿉 슚怨쇨 엳뒗 쓽븰쟻씤 紐⑹쟻쑝濡쒕룄 궗슜릺뿀떎. 떇珥덈뒗 怨〓Ъ怨 怨쇱씪 벑쓣 슚紐⑤ 씠슜븳 븣肄붿삱 諛쒗슚 꽭洹좎쓽 뿰냽쟻씤 珥덉궛諛쒗슚瑜 嫄곗퀜 깮궛맂떎. 슦由щ뒗 吏궃 뿰援ъ뿉꽌 븳빟옱媛 泥④맂 븳諛⑺쓳珥덉쓽 빆鍮꾨쭔 슚怨쇰 吏諛⑸궗 遺꾪빐 뿰愿맂 AMPKACC쓽 蹂솕瑜 꽭룷뿉꽌 愿李고븯떎(Lee and Park, 2017).

蹂 뿰援ъ쓽 紐⑹쟻 븳빟옱濡 留뚮뱺 븳諛⑸컻슚쓳珥(Herbal black vinegar, HBV)쓽 in vitro 寃곌낵瑜 넗濡, 怨좎諛⑹떇씠 HFD (45%/Kcal) 떇떒쑝濡 鍮꾨쭔 깮伊 紐⑤뜽쓣 쑀룄븯怨, 12二 룞븞 怨좎諛⑹떇씠 鍮꾨쭔 깮伊먯뿉寃 HBV瑜 蹂듭슜븳 썑, 媛꾧린뒫 蹂댄샇, 吏諛⑸텇빐, 삁떦, 肄⑺뙠湲곕뒫 蹂댄샇 벑 빟由ы븰쟻씤 빆鍮꾨쭔 슚怨쇰 愿李고븿쑝濡쒖뜥 HBV쓽 빆鍮꾨쭔 슚뒫쓣 寃젙븯怨좎옄 븯떎.

옱猷 諛 諛⑸쾿

븳諛⑹빟옱 꽦遺꾩“빀 諛 諛쒗슚議곌굔

鍮꾨쭔뿉 슚怨쇨 엳뒗 븳빟옱瑜 떇빟泥 湲곗 떇슜쑝濡 遺꾨쪟맂 븳빟옱쓽 理쒖쟻 샎빀鍮꾨 臾 3 L 湲곗뿉 媛뺥솴, 쑉臾, 寃곕챸옄瑜 100 g, 諛깆, 쁽궪 150 g, 떦洹뒗 300 g쑝濡 븳빟옱 議고빀鍮꾩쑉쓣 援ъ꽦븯떎. 븳빟옱瑜 90°C, 24 hr 뿴닔 異붿텧(hot water extraction)븳 썑 媛먯븬 냽異뺢린濡(EYELA, Japan) 떦룄 15~25 brix(brix: 怨쇱떎 100洹몃옩뿉 끃븘 엳뒗 떦쓽 臾닿쾶)濡 냽異뺥븯떎. 븳諛 異붿텧븸뿉 슚紐④퇏(Saccharomyces sp.)쓣 2% (v/v)릺寃 젒醫낇븯怨 28°C, 36 hr 諛곗뼇븳 썑 븳빟옱 諛쒗슚븸쓽 15% (v/v)쓣 떎떆 1李 븣肄붿삱 諛쒗슚떆궎怨좎옄 二 紐④퇏二쇱씤 슚紐④퇏(Saccharomyces sp.) 3~5% (v/v)濡 젒醫낇븯뿬 30°C, 5~7씪媛 援먮컲븯吏 븡怨 臾댁궛냼꽦 議곌굔쑝濡 諛곗뼇븯뿬 理쒖쥌 1李 諛쒗슚 썑 룄닔 6%濡 留욎텛뿀떎. 2李 諛쒗슚뿉뒗 珥덉궛洹(Acetobacter aceti)쓣 1×104 ~ 1×109 CFU/L濡 궗슜븯떎. 30°C, 10씪媛 궛냼꽦 議곌굔뿉꽌 援먮컲븯뿬 (150 X G) 諛곗뼇븯떎. 諛쒗슚怨쇱젙쓽 醫낅즺 썑 怨좏삎꽦遺꾧낵 옍瑜 洹좎<瑜 젣嫄고븯湲 쐞빐 100°C 20 min 媛뿴븯뿬 궡洹 썑 븘꽣 봽젅뒪濡(SINO, China) 怨좏삎遺꾩쓣 젣嫄고븯怨 븳諛⑸컻슚 쓳珥 썝븸쓣 젣議고븯떎.

몴以썝븸 諛 븳諛⑸컻슚떇珥

HBV 몴以썝븸 蹂댁〈쓣 쐞빐 鍮쏆쓣 李⑤떒븯怨 4C 깋옣怨좎뿉 蹂닿븯뿬 븘슂븷 븣 궗슜븯떎. 2諛, 4諛 씗꽍븸쓣 利앸쪟닔뿉 옒 끃뿬 以鍮꾪븯떎. Metformin (Wako pure medicine, Japan)怨 silymarin (Sigma, USA) 李멸퀬빟臾쇰줈 鍮쏄낵 닔遺 利앸컻쓣 理쒖냼솕븯湲 쐞빐 깋옣怨좎뿉 蹂닿븯뿬 궗슜븯떎. Metformin怨 silymarin 吏吏덇낵 룷룄떦 궗쓽 議곗젅씤옄씤 AMPK瑜 솢꽦솕븯뒗 臾쇱쭏濡 궗슜릺뒗 몴쟻씤 빟젣씠떎. 빆궛솕 諛 媛꾨낫샇 빟젣濡 궗슜릺怨 엳떎. 룷룄떦 빀꽦쓣 빐븯怨 씉닔릺뒗 寃껋쓣 3媛吏 냽룄쓽 HBV 몴以븸(썝븸, 2諛, 4諛 씗꽍븸) HFD 怨듦툒 썑 1二쇱씪씠 릺뒗 궇遺꽣 84씪 룞븞 븯猷⑥뿉 븳 踰 kg떦 10 mL뵫 蹂듭슜떆耳곌퀬, Metformin怨 Silymarin kg떦 媛곴컖 250 mg, 100 mg쓣 利앸쪟닔뿉 끃뿬 蹂듭슜떆耳곕떎(Fig. 1). 怨좎諛⑹떇씠 HFD(45%/Kcal) (Diet Research, USA)媛 떎뿕援 36留덈━뿉寃 젣怨 릺뿀쑝硫 議곌뎔 6留덈━뿉寃뚮뒗 씪諛 렆젢 궗猷(Superfeed Co., Korea)媛 젣怨듬릺뿀떎.

Fig. 1.

Adaptation and selection of HFD mice for examining the anti-obesity activities. Seven groups were prepared and used in this study. Total 56 adapted mice on HFD were selected based on the body weight at 7 days after initiation of HFD supply, and 2 mice in each group were removed based on the standard deviation of body weight at end of 84 days of administrations or mortalities; 6 mice per groups, total 42 mice were sacrificed. All test materials and two different reference drugs were directly diluted or dissolved in distilled water, and administered in a volume of 10 mL/kg, once a day for 84 days from 1 week after HFD supply. HFD, high-fat diet; HBV, herbal black vinegar.


룞臾쇱떎뿕

蹂 떎뿕 援ы븳쓽怨쇰븰 룞臾쇱떎뿕떎 洹쒖젙뿉 뵲씪 쓽猶 닔뻾릺뿀떎(DHU2011-021). 蹂 떎뿕뿉꽌 궗슜븳 6二쇰졊 븫而 112留덈━ ICR 깮伊먮뒗 룞臾쇱떎뿕떎뿉꽌 쟻쓳븳 썑 7씪吏 떎뿕뿉 궗슜븯떎(SLC, JAPAN). 20~25°C 삩룄 40~45% 뒿룄뿉꽌 耳씠吏떦 4留덈━떇 遺꾨━ 닔슜븯쑝硫 臾쇨낵 궗猷뚮 젣븳뾾씠 怨듦툒븯떎. 떎뿕湲곌컙 룞븞 96留덈━쓽 깮伊먮 떎뿕援곗쑝濡 꽑蹂꾪븯뿬 HFD瑜 怨듦툒븯怨 16留덈━쓽 깮伊먯뿉寃뚮뒗 꽕移섎쪟 蹂댄넻 렆젢 떇떒쓣 젣怨듯븯떎(Table 2). HFD 怨듦툒 7씪 썑 泥댁쨷 湲곗쑝濡 珥 56留덈━쓽 쟻쓳맂 깮伊먭 떊泥 以묐웾뿉 뵲씪 꽑蹂꾨릺뿀怨 떎떆 븘옒 媛숈씠 7媛쒖쓽 洹몃9쑝濡 굹늻뼱 理쒖쥌쟻쑝濡 42留덈━쓽 깮伊먮 긽쑝濡 떎뿕쓣 吏꾪뻾븯떎(Table 1).

Experimental dosage of treated drugs and herbal black vinegar (HBV) used for HFD

  Group  Diets Dose (mg/kg/day)   Treatment drug
ControlNorma pellet10 mL/kgVehicle (distilled water)
HFD pellet10 mL/kgVehicle

ReferencesHFD pellet100 mg/kgSilymarin 100 mg in 10 mL of distilled water
HFD pellet250 mg/kgMetformin 250 mg in 10 mL of distilled water

ActiveHFD pelletStockHBV stock solution 10 mL
HFD pellet2-fold dilutionHBV 2-fold dilution solution 10 mL
HFD pellet4-fold dilutionHBV 4-fold dilution solution 10 mL

Abbreviations: HFD, high fat diet; HBV: herbal black vinegar

Seven groups (total 56 adapted mice on HFD were selected base on the body weight at 7 days after initiation of HFD supply, and 2 mice in each group were removed based on the standard deviation of body weight at end of 84 days of administrations or mortalities; finally 6 mice per groups, total 42 mice were sacrificed) were used in this experiment. All test materials and two different reference drugs were directly diluted or dissolved in distilled water, and administered in a volume of 10 mL/kg, once a day for 84 days from 1 week after HFD supply


Formulas of normal and high fat diet (HFD) mice used in this study

Normal pellet diets (g/kg diet)High fat diets (g/kg diet)*
Ingredient
 Casein200200
 L-Cystein33
 Corn starch15072.8
 Sucrose500172.8
 Cellulose5050
 Soybean oil5025
 Lard0177.5
 Mineral mixture3510
 Vitamin mixture1010
 Choline bitartrate22
Energy (kcal/g)0.214.73
Protein (% kcal/kg)13.320
Carbohydrate (% kcal/kg)47.435
Fat (% kcal/kg)8.045
Fiber (% kcal/kg)8.08.0

45%Kcal/Fat pellet diets (D12451; Diet research, PA, USA) were used as high fat diet (HFD) and normal rodents pellet diet (Super-feed Co., Korea) were used as normal diets


  • (1) 議곌뎔: 씪諛 렆젢 떇떒怨 利앸쪟닔 젣怨(10 mL/Kg)

  • (2) HFD 援: HFD 떇떒怨 利앸쪟닔 젣怨(10 mL/Kg)

  • (3) Metformin 援: HFD 떇떒 젣怨 깮伊먯뿉 Metformin 젣怨(250 mg/Kg)

  • (4) Silymarin 援: HFD 떇떒 젣怨 깮伊먯뿉 Silymarin 젣怨(100 mg/Kg)

  • (5) HBV 썝븸援: HFD 떇떒 젣怨 깮伊먯뿉 븳諛⑸컻슚쓳珥덉썝븸 젣怨(10 mL/Kg)

  • (6) HBV 2諛 씗꽍븸援: HFD 떇떒 젣怨 깮伊먯뿉寃 븳諛⑸컻슚쓳珥 2諛 씗꽍븸 젣怨(10 mL/Kg)

  • (7) HBV 4諛 씗꽍븸援: HFD 떇떒 젣怨 깮伊먯뿉寃 븳諛⑸컻슚쓳珥 4諛 씗꽍븸 젣怨(10 mL/Kg)

깮由щ솕 痢≪젙

泥댁쨷: HFD 怨듦툒떆옉 쟾썑 옄룞 쟾옄슱(Precisa Instrument, Switzland)쓣 궗슜븯뿬 醫낅즺맆 븣源뚯 留ㅼ< 痢≪젙븯떎. 癒뱀씠쓽 李⑥씠瑜 以꾩씠湲 쐞빐 궗猷뚭 怨듦툒릺뒗 떆옉怨 醫낅즺떆젏뿉꽌 븯猷삳갇 湲덉떇떆耳곕떎.

삁떦: 삁븸쓣 젙留μ뿉꽌 梨꾪삁븯뿬 삁泥쓣 썝떖遺꾨━븳 썑 옄룞삁븸遺꾩꽍湲곕 궗슜븯뿬 遺꾩꽍븯떎(Hemagen Diagnostic, USA).

議곗쭅 泥댁쨷: 醫낅즺 떆 媛, 肄⑺뙠, 궃냼二쇰吏諛 뙣뱶뒗 젅 臾닿쾶(g)濡 痢≪젙븯怨, 媛쒕퀎 泥댁쨷쓽 李⑥씠瑜 理쒖냼솕븯湲 쐞빐 긽 泥댁쨷(%)쑝濡 怨꾩궛븯떎.

삁泥 깮솕븰寃궗: 醫낅즺 떆, 留덉랬긽깭뿉꽌 삁븸 1 mL瑜 梨꾪삁븯뿬 삁泥遺꾨━뒠釉뚯뿉 삷湲 썑 떎삩뿉꽌 15,000 rpm, 10遺꾧컙 썝떖遺꾨━븯뿬 삁泥쓣 뼸뿀떎. 삁泥 AST, AST, 珥 肄쒕젅뒪뀒濡, 以묒꽦吏諛, LDL 肄쒕젅뒪뀒濡, HDL 肄쒕젅뒪뀒濡, BUN, 겕젅븘떞 媛믩뱾 옄룞삁븸遺꾩꽍湲곕 씠슜븯떎.

넻怨꾨텇꽍

HFD mice뿉寃 젣怨듯븳 븳諛⑸컻슚떇珥덉 몴以빟젣뿉 빐꽌 떎以묐퉬援 떆뿕쓣 닔뻾븯떎. Variance homogeneity瑜 쐞빐 Levene test瑜 닔뻾븯떎. 留뚯빟 Levene test媛 쑀쓽誘명븳 렪李⑤ 蹂댁씠吏 븡쑝硫 뼸뼱吏 뜲씠꽣瑜 ANOVA 떒痢 寃利앹쑝濡 遺꾩꽍븯怨 씠뼱꽌 LSD (least-significant differences)瑜 닔뻾븯뿬 뼱뒓 鍮꾧탳援곗씠 쑀쓽誘명븳 媛믪쓣 蹂댁씠뒗吏 떎以묐퉬援 떆뿕쓣 븯떎. 넻怨꾨텇꽍 R (https://cran.seoul.go.kr/)쓣 씠슜븯뿬 닔뻾븯떎.

寃 怨

븳諛⑸컻슚쓳珥 깮由ы솢꽦 꽦遺꾨텇꽍

븳諛⑸컻슚쓳珥덉쓽 珥덉궛 븿웾 4.9%濡 궙븯吏留 떇뭹怨듭쟾(KFDA, 2012)쓽 떇珥 洹쒓꺽뿉 쟻빀븳 踰붿쐞뿉 룷븿릺뿀떎. 珥앺뤃由ы럹 븿웾쓣 궛異쒗븯湲 쐞빐꽌 몴以怨꾩궛떇쓣 씠슜븯뿬 1 N Folin-ciocalteu 떆빟 0.2 mL怨 떆猷 0.1 mL쓣 泥④ 썑 吏꾪깢븳 썑 1遺꾧컙 떎삩뿉꽌 諛섏쓳떆耳곕떎. 20% Na2CO3 3 mL쓣 옱 泥④븯怨 吏꾪깢븳 썑 2떆媛 떎삩뿉꽌 諛⑹튂 썑 765 nm 씉愿묐룄濡 痢≪젙븯떎. 蹂 HBV쓽 뤃由ы럹 븿웾 233.36 ppm쑝濡 遺꾩꽍릺뼱 湲곗〈 젣뭹(媛먰쁽誘 蹂듯빀떇珥 109.21 ppm)뿉 鍮꾪빐 2.1諛 넂 媛믪쓣 굹궡뼱 깮由ы솢꽦씠 뭾遺븳 諛쒗슚떇珥덉엫쓣 븣 닔 엳뿀떎.

븳諛⑸컻슚쓳珥덉쓽 鍮꾨쭔 슚怨

빆鍮꾨쭔 in vivo 떎뿕: 蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗, 씪二쇱씪 룞븞 HFD瑜 꽠痍⑦븳 깮伊먯쓽 룞臾쇱떎뿕 寃곌낵瑜 泥댁쨷, 1씪 떇궗냼鍮꾨웾, 吏諛⑹꽭룷쓽 移⑥갑 벑 湲곗큹궗웾쓽 蹂솕 깮由щ퀝由ы븰쟻 蹂솕瑜 삁떦븯, 媛꾨낫샇, 肄⑺뙠蹂댄샇, 빆怨좎삁利 諛 빆鍮꾨쭔 슚怨쇰줈 援щ텇븯뿬 븘옒 媛숈씠 鍮꾧탳 遺꾩꽍븯떎.

(1) 泥댁쨷怨 1씪 떇궗냼鍮꾨웾쓽 蹂솕

HFD 떇씠瑜 넻빐 泥댁쨷씠 젙긽쟻쑝濡 利앷븳 留덉슦뒪瑜 泥댁쨷怨꾩륫 떎뿕뿉 궗슜븯떎. HFD 떇씠瑜 븳 깮伊먮뒗 84씪 닾뿬 룞븞뿉 泥댁쨷씠 利앷븯떎. 씠젃寃 泥댁쨷씠 利앷븳 깮伊먮 긽쑝濡 metformin怨 silymarin쓣 泥섏튂븳 留덉슦뒪쓽 泥댁쨷쓣 怨꾩륫븳 寃곌낵 HFD 議 留덉슦뒪뿉 鍮꾪븯뿬 媛곴컖 23씪, 63씪吏 媛곴컖 泥댁쨷씠 媛먯냼븯떎(P<0.05). HBV 썝븸怨, 2諛 씗꽍븸, 4諛 씗꽍븸쓣 닾뿬뻽쓣 븣, HFD 떇씠 留덉슦뒪쓽 泥댁쨷 紐⑤몢뿉꽌 媛먯냼븿쓣 솗씤븯떎(Fig. 2). 삉븳, HFD瑜 꽠痍⑦븳 留덉슦뒪뿉꽌뒗 鍮껰FD 떇씠 留덉슦뒪뿉꽌 紐⑤몢 룊洹 1씪 떇궗냼鍮꾨웾씠 媛먯냼븯떎. 븯吏留, HFD 議곌뎔 留덉슦뒪뿉 鍮꾪빐 metformin, silmarin, HBV 썝븸, 2諛 씗꽍븸, 4諛 씗꽍븸쓣 蹂듭슜븳 留덉슦뒪뒗 -5.37%, -1.22%, 5.09%, -3.12%, 5.02%뵫 媛곴컖 蹂솕븯뿬 젙긽 議곌뎔뿉 鍮꾪빐 쑀쓽꽦 엳뒗(P<0.01) 룊洹 궗猷뚯꽠痍⑤웾쓽 媛먯냼媛 씪뼱굹뒗 寃껋쓣 紐⑤뱺 HFD 怨듦툒援곗뿉꽌 솗씤븷 닔 엳뿀쑝굹, HFD 議곌뎔뿉 鍮꾪빐꽌뒗 쑀쓽븳 1씪 궗猷뚯꽠痍⑤웾 蹂솕뒗 뾾뿀떎(Table 5).

Fig. 2.

Change of body weights during 84 days of continuous oral treatment of HBV in HFD. All HFD supplied mice were showed significant increased body weights as compared with intact mice from 1 week after HFD supply. Significant decreases of body weights were detected from 28 and 63 days after metformin and silymarin treatment as compared with HFD control, and significant decreases of body weights were also demonstrated in BV stock, 2- and 4-fold diluted solution treated mice as compared with HFD control from 21 or 63 days after administration, respectively. Values are expressed mean ± S.D. of six mice. HFD, high fat diet; HBV, herbal black vinegar. B8 and B1 means 8 and 1 day before start of administration. Day 0 means start of administration day after overnight being fasted. Day 84 means at sacrifice after 84 days of continuous oral administration after overnight being fasted. Group ID was listed in Table 1.


Body weight gains and fat weight detected in HFD mice in this study

 GroupsGains duringPeriovarian fat weights


Adapt period (7 days)Administration period (84 days)Absolute (g)Relative (% of body weights)
Controls
 Intact2.93±1.054.62±3.210.061±0.0320.187±0.097
 HFD5.75±1.28a36.68±9.31a1.344±0.154e1.980±0.112a
References
 Metformin6.17±1.35a12.45±5.92c0.360±0.115eg0.829±0.332ac
 Silymarin5.32±1.32a26.03±10.66ad0.664±0.164eg1.194±0.466ac
HBV diluted
 Stock6.32±1.05a12.18±5.28c0.316±0.101eg0.729±0.244ac
 2-fold6.68±1.74a14.52±7.81ac0.383±0.142eg0.787±0.217ac
 4-fold6.32±1.78a18.57± 6.70ac0.554±0.072eg1.124±0.317ac

Values are expressed mean ± S.D. of six mice Abbreviations: HFD, high fat diet; HBV: herbal black vinegar

aP<0.01 and bP<0.05 compared with intact control by Least Significant Difference (LSD) test

cP<0.01 and

dP<0.05 compared with HFD control by LSD test

eP<0.01 and fP<0.05 compared with intact control by Mann-Whitney (MW) test

gP<0.01 and hP<0.05 compared with HFD control by MW test


Mean diameters of adipocyte with periovarian fat pad thickness detected in HFD mice in this study

 GroupsMean diameters (μm)Abdominal fat pad thicknesses (mm)

Periovarian adipocytesAbdominal adipocytes
Controls
 Intact73.48±11.9974.65±8.281.05±0.25
 HFD307.61±9.63e236.06±15.97a5.22±0.54e
References
 Metformin140.24±5.19eg115.10±17.14ac2.83±0.94eg
 Silymarin224.24±26.58eg137.34±11.46ac3.45±0.47eg
HBV diluted
 Stock106.40±10.01eg83.07±5.88ac1.65±0.45eg
 2-fold125.85±9.02eg99.10±8.39ac2.10±0.17eg
 4-fold143.40±10.82eg112.70± 10.49ac2.77±0.43eg

Values are expressed mean ± S.D. of six mice Abbreviations: HFD, high fat diet; HBV: herbal black vinegar

aP<0.01 and bP<0.05 compared with intact control by Least Significant Difference (LSD) test

cP<0.01 and dP<0.05 compared with HFD control by LSD test

eP<0.01 and fP<0.05 compared with intact control by Mann-Whitney (MW) test

gP<0.01 and hP<0.05 compared with HFD control by MW test


Mean daily food consumption and with blood glucose levels detected in HFD supplied mice in this study

 GroupsMean food consumption (g/mouse/day)Serum glucose levels (mg/dL)
Controls
 Intact5.82±1.1395.83±9.33
 HFD4.33±0.39e260.50±52.24e
References
 Metformin4.09±0.47e146.83± 8.86eg
 Silymarin4.27±0.61e201.33±25.44eh
HBV diluted
 Stock4.55±0.72e108.83±10.96g
 2-fold4.19±0.48e129.83± 10.53eg
 4-fold4.54±0.66e143.00±12.84eg

Values are expressed mean ± S.D. of six mice Abbreviations: HFD, high fat diet; HBV: herbal black vinegar

aP<0.01 and bP<0.05 compared with intact control by Least Significant Difference (LSD) test cP<0.01 and dP<0.05 compared with HFD control by LSD test

eP<0.01 and fP<0.05 compared with intact control by Mann-Whitney (MW) test

gP<0.01 and

hP<0.05 compared with HFD control by MW test


(2) 궃냼 二쇱쐞吏諛 以묐웾怨 吏諛⑹꽭룷 吏곴꼍쓽 蹂솕

궃냼二쇰 吏諛⑹ 젙긽 議곌뎔뿉 鍮꾪빐 HFD 議곌뎔쓽 臾닿쾶媛 利앷븯怨 몢 李멸퀬떆빟(metformin, silmarin)怨 3媛쒖쓽 씗꽍븸 HBV(썝븸, 2諛 씗꽍븸, 4諛 씗꽍븸)瑜 꽠痍⑦븳 留덉슦뒪 닾뿬援곗뿉꽌 HFD 議곌뎔뿉 鍮꾪빐 궃냼二쇱쐞 吏諛 以묐웾 臾닿쾶媛 紐⑤몢 媛먯냼븯떎(Table 3). 븳렪, 젙긽 議곌뎔뿉 鍮꾪빐 HFD 議곌뎔쓽 寃쎌슦 궃냼二쇱쐞 吏諛⑹꽭룷 吏곴꼍씠 利앷븯怨 紐⑤뱺 닾뿬援곗뿉꽌 HFD 議곌뎔뿉 鍮꾪빐 궃냼二쇱쐞 吏諛⑹꽭룷 吏곴꼍쓽 媛먯냼瑜 굹궡뿀떎. 蹂듬踰 吏諛⑹꽭룷쓽 吏곴꼍 젙긽 議곌뎔뿉 鍮꾪빐 HFD 議곌뎔씠 寃쎌슦 蹂듬踰 吏諛⑹꽭룷 吏곴꼍씠 利앷븯怨, 李멸퀬떆빟怨 3媛쒖쓽 씗꽍븸 HBV瑜 꽠痍⑦븳 留덉슦뒪 닾뿬援곗뿉꽌뒗 HFD 議곌뎔뿉 鍮꾪빐 蹂듬踰 吏諛⑹꽭룷 吏곴꼍쓽 媛먯냼瑜 솗씤븯떎. 뵲씪꽌 蹂듬踰 吏諛 몢猿 삉븳 젙긽 議곌뎔뿉 鍮꾪빐 利앷븯怨 HBV벑쓣 닾뿬븳 留덉슦뒪 닾뿬援곗뿉꽌뒗 蹂듬踰 吏諛⑹꽭룷 吏곴꼍씠 媛먯냼븯떎(Table 4).

(3) 븳諛⑸컻슚떇珥덉쓽 삁떦뿉 誘몄튂뒗 슚怨

젙긽 議곌뎔뿉 鍮꾧탳뻽쓣 븣, HFD 議곌뎔쓽 삁떦 利앷瑜 愿李고븷 닔 엳뿀떎. 젙긽 議곌뎔뿉 鍮꾪빐 HFD 議곌뎔쓽 삁떦 171.83%쓽 利앷瑜 굹궡뿀쑝硫, 李멸퀬떆빟怨 3媛쒖쓽 씗꽍븸 HBV瑜 꽠痍⑦븳 留덉슦뒪 닾뿬援곗뿉꽌 43.63, 22.71, 58.22, 50.16, 洹몃━怨 45.11%쓽 삁떦 媛먯냼쓽 蹂솕瑜 솗씤븯떎(Table 5).

(4) 븳諛⑸컻슚떇珥덉쓽 怨좎삁利앹뿉 誘몄튂뒗 슚怨

삁以 珥 肄쒕젅뒪뀒濡 닔移, 듃由ш由ъ꽭씪씠뱶 븿웾怨 LDL쓽 蹂솕媛 젙긽 議곌뎔怨 鍮꾧탳뻽쓣 븣 HFD 鍮꾧탳援곗뿉꽌 넂寃 굹궗怨 몴以떆빟怨 HBV 씗꽍븸쓣 泥섎━븳 留덉슦뒪 援곗뿉꽌뒗 媛먯냼븯떎. 諛섎㈃뿉, 삁以 HDL쓽 蹂솕뒗 젙긽 議곌뎔뿉 鍮꾪빐 HFD 議곌뎔쓽 븿웾씠 媛먯냼릺뿀怨 李멸퀬떆빟怨 3媛쒖쓽 씗꽍븸 HBV瑜 꽠痍⑦븳 留덉슦뒪 닾뿬援곗뿉꽌 47.20, 36,80, 78.00, 62.00, 洹몃━怨 48.00% HDL씠 긽듅릺뿀떎(Table 6).

Serum lipid level detected in HFD supplied mice in this study

 GroupsSerum levels (mg/dL)

Total cholesterolTriglycerideLDLHDL
Controls
 Intact107.83±14.7448.83±14.0712.83±1.4794.33±15.69
 HFD210.67±21.13a207.00±18.56a30.67±2.58e41.67±12.64a
References
 Metformin152.17 ± 13.00ac132.17 ± 16.53ac20.50±1.87eg61.33±7.69ac
 Silymarin160.33±11.59ac144.83±15.09ac21.67±3.14eg57.00±11.05ad
HBV diluted
 Stock123.17±15.57c97.50±20.93ac14.33±3.72g74.17±9.15ac
 2-fold138.17±12.30ac119.00± 17.99ac17.17 ± 2.64fg67.50±14.40ac
 4-fold147.83 ± 17.03ac131.33±11.54ac20.83±3.25eg61.67±4.68ac

Values are expressed mean ± S.D. of six mice Abbreviations: HFD, high fat diet; HBV: herbal black vinegar

aP<0.01 and bP<0.05 compared with intact control by Least Significant Difference (LSD) test

cP<0.01 and

dP<0.05 compared with HFD control by LSD test

eP<0.01 and

fP<0.05 compared with intact control by Mann-Whitney (MW) test

gP<0.01 and hP<0.05 compared with HFD control by MW test


(5) 븳諛⑸컻슚떇珥덉쓽 媛꾨퀝利앹뿉 誘몄튂뒗 슚怨

媛 以묐웾, 삁以 AST·ALT, 媛 떎吏덉“吏곸쓽 吏諛⑸솕쑉 蹂솕媛 젙긽 議곌뎔怨 鍮꾧탳뻽쓣 븣, HFD 鍮꾧탳援곗뿉꽌 넂寃 굹궗怨 몴以떆빟怨 HBV 씗꽍븸쓣 泥섎━븳 留덉슦뒪 援곗뿉꽌뒗 媛먯냼븯떎. 媛꾩꽭룷 吏곴꼍쓽 鍮꾨媛 젙긽 議곌뎔怨 鍮꾧탳뻽쓣 븣, HFD 鍮꾧탳援곗뿉꽌 넂寃 굹궗怨 몴以떆빟怨 HBV 씗꽍븸쓣 泥섎━븳 留덉슦뒪 援곗뿉꽌뒗 媛곴컖 26.22, 33.16, 54.34, 48.64, 洹몃━怨 37.08% 媛먯냼븯떎(Table 7, 8).

Liver weights with serum AST and ALT levels detected in HFD supplied mice in this study

 GroupsLiver weightsSerum levels (IU/dL)


Absolute (g)Relative (% of body weights)ASTALT
Controls
 Intact1.372±0.2174.264±0.35984.00±8.3224.83±6.85
 HFD2.533±0.147a3.778±0.564212.00±19.33a158.17±15.26a
References
 Metformin1.488±0.087c3.372±0.428a168.17± 9.62ac132.83±9.91ac
 Silymarin1.441±0.113c2.563±0.541ac122.17± 17.03ac93.33±15.08ac
BV diluted
 Stock1.342±0.121c3.090±0.419ad91.83±16.23c68.50±12.94ac
 2-fold1.435±0.147c3.129±0.674ad106.00± 8.85ac75.67±16.48ac
 4-fold1.566±0.081bc3.160±0.662a118.00± 7.90ac91.83±13.50ac

Values are expressed mean ± S.D. of six mice Abbreviations: HFD, high fat diet; HBV: herbal black vinegar

aP<0.01 and

bP<0.05 compared with intact control by Least Significant Difference (LSD) test

cP<0.01 and

dP<0.05 compared with HFD control by LSD test eP<0.01 and fP<0.05 compared with intact control by Mann-Whitney (MW) test gP<0.01 and hP<0.05 compared with HFD control by MW test


Steatohepatitis and mean hepatocyte diameters detected in HFD mice in this study

 GroupsHistomorphometry

Steatohepatitis (% of fatty change regions)Mean hepatocyte diameters (μm)
Controls
 Intact7.83±2.4934.34±5.57
 HFD81.31±6.13a89.32±13.75a
References
 Metformin64.38±8.33ac65.90±5.76ac
 Silymarin41.20±3.90ac59.70±6.15ac
HBV diluted
 Stock15.65±4.19bc40.78±5.08c
 2-fold36.27±4.24ac45.87±6.15bc
 4-fold43.79±4.97ac56.20±8.36ac

Values are expressed mean ± S.D. of six mice Abbreviations: HFD, high fat diet; HBV: herbal black vinegar

aP<0.01 and

bP<0.05 compared with intact control by Least Significant Difference (LSD) test

cP<0.01 and dP<0.05 compared with HFD control by LSD test eP<0.01 and fP<0.05 compared with intact control by Mann-Whitney (MW) test gP<0.01 and hP<0.05 compared with HFD control by MW test


(6) 븳諛⑸컻슚떇珥덉쓽 肄⑺뙠蹂묒쬆뿉 誘몄튂뒗 슚怨

肄⑺뙠 以묐웾, 삁以 BUN, 겕젅븘떞怨 蹂꽦 꽭눊愿 닔쓽 蹂솕媛 젙긽 議곌뎔怨 鍮꾧탳뻽쓣 븣, HFD 鍮꾧탳援곗뿉꽌 넂寃 굹궗怨 몴以떆빟怨 HBV 씗꽍븸쓣 泥섎━븳 留덉슦뒪 援곗뿉꽌뒗 媛먯냼븯떎. 븯吏留, 肄⑺뙠 긽쟻 以묐웾 媛먯냼븯떎(Table 9, 10).

Kidney weights and histomorphometry detected in HFD mice in this study

 GroupsKidney weightsHistomorphometry


Absolute (g)Relative (% of body weights)Abnormal tubule numbers (per 100 tubules)
Controls
 Intact0.217±0.0210.683±0.1067.67±2.58
 HFD0.259±0.016a0.387±0.066a78.00±5.76a
References
 Metformin0.229±0.018d0.524±0.117a56.00±4.60ac
 Silymarin0.228±0.017d0.408±0.105a43.50±4.23ac
HBV diluted
 Stock0.212±0.005c0.491±0.087a12.00±1.97c
 2-fold0.227±0.025c0.492±0.087a33.00±7.67ac
 4-fold0.247±0.027b0.495±0.093ad45.17±9.20ac

Values are expressed mean ± S.D. of six mice Abbreviations: HFD, high fat diet; HBV: herbal black vinegar

aP<0.01 and

bP<0.05 compared with intact control by Least Significant Difference (LSD) test

cP<0.01 and

dP<0.05 compared with HFD control by LSD test eP<0.01 and fP<0.05 compared with intact control by Mann-Whitney (MW) test gP<0.01 and hP<0.05 compared with HFD control by MW test


Serum Creatinine and BUN levels detected in HFD mice in this study

 GroupsSerum levels (mg/dL)

BUNCreatinine
Controls
 Intact32.17±4.540.63±0.15
 HFD81.67±10.17a1.98±0.21a
References
 Metformin62.00±12.55ac1.52±0.16ac
 Silymarin56.17±9.06ac1.40±0.26ac
HBV diluted
 Stock32.83±5.60c0.98±0.22bc
 2-fold40.50±5.39c1.18± 0.35ac
 4-fold54.83±12.09ac1.38±0.25ac

Values are expressed mean ± S.D. of six mice Abbreviations: HFD, high fat diet; HBV: herbal black vinegar

aP<0.01 and

bP<0.05 compared with intact control by Least Significant Difference (LSD) test

cP<0.01 and dP<0.05 compared with HFD control by LSD test eP<0.01 and fP<0.05 compared with intact control by Mann- Whitney (MW) test gP<0.01 and hP<0.05 compared with HFD control by MW test


怨 李

蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗 쟾넻諛쒗슚諛⑹떇뿉 뵲씪 蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌 젣떆맂 議고빀쓣 넻빐 留뚮뱾뼱吏 븳諛⑸컻슚쓳珥(HBV)쓽 HFD 떇씠 깮伊먯뿉꽌쓽 빟由ы븰쟻 슚怨쇰 愿李고븯怨좎옄 븯떎. 궗利앺썑援곗쓣 洹밸났븷 닔 엳뒗 깉濡쒖슫 빟臾쇱쓣 寃利앺븯湲 쐞빐 닔 留롮 룞臾 紐⑤뜽쓣 媛쒕컻븯뒗 뜲 떎닔뒗 떖媛곹븳 鍮꾨쭔怨 怨좏삁떦利앹쓣 굹궡湲 븣臾몄뿉 떦눊瑜 移섎즺븯湲 쐞븳 뿰援ъ뿉 궗슜맂떎(Sone et al., 2001). 諛섎㈃뿉, 깮伊먯쓽 HFD 떇씠쑀룄 鍮꾨쭔 紐⑤뜽 媛踰쇱슫 鍮꾨쭔利앷낵 怨좏삁떦利앹쓣 굹궡怨 궗吏덊솚利앺썑援곗쓽 삁諛⑺븯湲 쐞븳 빟젣媛쒕컻쓣 쐞빐 궗슜맂떎(Park et al., 2005). 빆鍮꾨쭔 슚怨쇱뿉 쁺뼢쓣 誘몄튌 닔 엳뒗吏 吏吏덈궗 愿젴맂 AMPK쓽 以묒슂븳 議곗젅硫붿뭅땲利섏쓣 솗씤븯湲 쐞빐, 吏궃 뿰援ъ뿉꽌 HBV瑜 꽭룷二쇱뿉 泥섎━븳 썑 빆鍮꾨쭔 愿젴 몴쟻 슚냼씤 AMPK (AMP activated protein kinase) 솢꽦쓣 遺꾩꽍븯떎(Vytla and Ochs, 2013). 媛꾨떒엳 슂빟븯硫, 留덉슦뒪 洹쇱쑁꽭룷씤 L6 꽭룷二쇱뿉 HBV瑜 0%, 2%, 5%, 10%濡 泥섎━븳 썑 AMPK쓽 솢꽦솕瑜 痢≪젙븯떎. 寃곌낵쟻쑝濡 pACC 씤궛솕媛 利앷릺뿀怨 긽쟻쑝濡 ACC 슚냼솢꽦씠 뼲젣릺뼱 melonyl-CoA쓽 깮꽦웾씠 媛먯냼븿쑝濡쒖뜥 吏諛⑹궛솕瑜 씪쑝궎寃 븯뿬 泥댁諛⑹씠 媛먯냼맖쓣 솗씤븯떎(Lee and Park, 2017). 씠瑜 넗濡, 蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗 HBV쓽 in vivo 슚뒫쓣 愿李고븯湲 쐞빐 HBV 썝븸怨 2諛, 4諛 씗꽍븸 3媛吏瑜 以鍮꾪븯뿬 HFD뿉寃 蹂듭슜 썑 12二쇨 吏굹꽌 媛, 삁떦, 떊옣 諛 빆鍮꾨쭔 슚怨쇰 寃利앺븯湲 쐞빐 깮솕븰쟻, 蹂묐━븰쟻 寃궗瑜 吏꾪뻾븯떎(Fig. 1). 씠瑜 쐞빐꽌, HFD 떇씠 긽 깮伊먮 1二쇱씪媛 솚寃쎌뿉 쟻쓳븳 썑 꽑蹂꾨맂 깮伊먮 긽쑝濡 떎떆 1二쇱씪媛 蹂멸꺽쟻쑝濡 HFD 떇씠瑜 꽠痍⑦븯룄濡 븯怨 씠썑 12二쇨컙 뜑 吏냽쟻쑝濡 HFD 떇씠瑜 吏꾪뻾븯떎. 삁떦쓽 蹂솕뒗 삁泥 룷룄떦 닔移섏쓽 蹂솕瑜 洹쇨굅濡 寃利앺븯怨, 媛꾨낫샇 슚怨쇰뒗 媛꾩쓽 臾닿쾶쓽 蹂솕 媛꾩쓽 議곗쭅蹂묐━븰쟻씤 냼寃, AST, ALT 닔移섎 洹쇨굅濡 寃利앺븯떎. 삉븳, 肄⑺뙠蹂댄샇 슚怨쇰뒗 肄⑺뙠 臾닿쾶쓽 蹂솕 BUN, 겕젅븘떞쓽 닔移섎 洹쇨굅濡 슚뒫쓣 寃젙븯怨, 吏吏덊삁利앹쓽 蹂솕뒗 珥 肄쒕젅뒪뀒濡, 듃由ш由ъ꽭씪씠뱶(以묒꽦吏諛), LDL 肄쒕젅뒪뀒濡, HDL 肄쒕젅뒪뀒濡 닔移 泥댁쨷 蹂솕 궃냼二쇱쐞 吏諛 臾닿쾶 議곗쭅蹂묐━븰쟻 냼寃, 蹂듬 吏諛⑹꽭룷 벑씠 빆鍮꾨쭔쓽 슚怨쇰 寃利앺븯뒗 湲곗쑝濡 궗슜릺뿀떎. Metformin (250 mg/kg) 삁떦 슚怨쇱 빆鍮꾨쭔 슚怨쇰 쐞빐 議곗떆빟쑝濡 궗슜릺뿀怨 Silymarin (100 mg/kg) 媛꾨낫샇 슚怨쇰 쐞븳 議곗떆빟쑝濡 궗슜릺뿀떎. 떎뿕 7 洹몃9쑝濡 굹닠꽌 吏꾪뻾릺뿀쑝硫(Table 1), 븯猷⑥뿉 븳 踰 議곗떆빟怨 媛곴컖쓽 HBV (10 ml/kg)瑜 利앸쪟닔뿉 끃뿬 怨듦툒븯떎(寃쎄뎄 닾뿬). HFD 떇씠 洹몃9뿉꽌쓽 쓬떇냼紐⑤웾 鍮껰FD 떇씠 洹몃9怨 鍮꾧탳뻽쓣 븣 썾뵮 넂븯떎(Table 2). 븯吏留 HBV瑜 꽠痍⑦븳 洹몃9怨 몴以떆빟(Metformin怨 Silymarin) 洹몃9쓣 鍮꾧탳빐 蹂대㈃ 겙 李⑥씠瑜 蹂댁씠吏 븡븯떎. 洹몃윭誘濡 HBV쓽 蹂듭슜븳 깮伊먯쓽 빟由ы븰쟻씤 슚怨쇨 쓬떇냼紐⑥쓽 뼲젣뿉꽌 씪뼱굹吏 븡븯쓬쓣 븣 닔 엳뿀떎(Table 5). 紐몃Т寃 利앷쓽 뼲젣뒗 鍮꾨쭔 移섎즺쓽 吏곸젒쟻씤 寃곌낵臾쇱씠떎. 吏諛⑹텞쟻쓽 利앷뒗 鍮꾨쭔쓽 以묒슂븳 슂씤씠怨 꽭룷媛 鍮꾨빐吏뒗 寃껋 蹂듬 吏諛⑹“吏곸쓽 以묒슂븳 썝씤씠 맂떎(Morange et al., 2000; Cani et al., 2008). 吏諛⑹“吏곸 떒닚엳 뿉꼫吏瑜 蹂닿븯뒗 뿭븷 肉먮쭔 븘땲씪, 븘뵒룷移댁씤(adipokine)쓣 遺꾨퉬븯뒗 궡遺꾨퉬 湲곌씠떎(Fujita et al., 2005; Maury and Brichard, 2010). 蹂 떎뿕뿉꽌뒗 HBV 쓽議댁쟻쑝濡 泥댁쨷 利앷, 吏諛⑹묠李, 吏諛⑹꽭룷쓽 鍮꾨 벑쓣 뼲젣븷 닔 엳뿀쑝硫, 4諛 HBV 씗꽍븸쓣 닾뿬뻽쓣 븣뿉룄 Metformin뿉 굹궃 슚怨쇰쭔겮 빆鍮꾨쭔 슚怨쇰 옒 蹂댁뿬二쇱뿀떎(Table 3, 4).

蹂 뿰援щ 넻븯뿬 븳諛 냼옱瑜 뿴닔 異붿텧 썑 理쒖쟻솕맂 諛쒗슚怨쇱젙쓣 嫄곗퀜 깮궛맂 HBV 빆鍮꾨쭔뿉 븳 슚뒫씠 寃利앸릺뿀떎. 怨좎諛⑹떇씠 HFD 깮伊먮 긽쑝濡 HBV媛 怨좏삁떦, 怨좎吏덊삁利 벑쓽 빆鍮꾨쭔 슚怨쇰 굹궡뒗 吏 깮솕븰쟻, 議곗쭅蹂묐━븰쟻 寃곌낵瑜 넻빐 빆鍮꾨쭔 슚怨쇨 엳쓬쓣 룞臾쇱떎뿕쓣 넻빐 솗씤븷 닔 엳뿀떎. 븵쑝濡 빆鍮꾨쭔쓣 쑀룄븯뒗 臾쇱쭏씠 臾댁뾿씤吏 遺꾩꽍븯怨 씠瑜 쐞빐 븳諛⑸컻슚쓳珥덉쓽 鍮꾨쭔뼲젣 硫붿빱땲利섏뿉 븳 옄꽭븳 뿰援ш 썑냽릺뼱빞 븷 寃껋쑝濡 깮媛곹븳떎.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This study was partially supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant (http://nrf.re.kr) to S.P. (NRF-2017R1D1A3B-03029902); by a grant from Kyungwoon University (2018) (http://www.ikw.ac.kr) to D.L, and S.P.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.

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