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Utilizing Prosodic Information on the Sentence Comprehension in Children with High Functioning Autism
Biomed Sci Letters 2017;23:362-371
Published online December 31, 2017;  https://doi.org/10.15616/BSL.2017.23.4.362
© 2017 The Korean Society For Biomedical Laboratory Sciences.

Chan-Hee Chung1, Hee-Ran Lee2, and Jin-Dong Kim2,†

1Hadam Child Development Center, Busan 46252, Korea,
2Department of Speech and Hearing Therapy, College of Health Science, Catholic University of Pusan, Busan 46252, Korea
Correspondence to: Jin-Dong Kim. Department of Speech and Hearing Therapy, College of Health Science, Catholic University of Pusan, 57 Oryundae-ro, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 46252, Korea. Tel: +82-51-510-0844, Fax: +82-51-510-0848, e-mail: jdkim@cup.ac.kr
Received September 17, 2017; Revised October 25, 2017; Accepted November 2, 2017.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
 Abstract

The purpose of this study is to investigate difficulties in using prosodic information to identify the meaning of ambiguous sentences in children with high functioning autism (HFA). Fifteen high functioning autistic children and fifteen children who matched their chronological age (CA) participated in this study. We compared the performance of the two groups by conducting syntactically and affectively ambiguous sentence comprehension (SASC and AASC) tasks. The results of this study show that in both tasks, the difference between the two groups was statistically significant at each condition and the performance of high functioning autistic children was significantly lower. In a correlation analysis of major variables, children who matched CA showed a correlation between prosody-only (PO) and AASC, while children with HFA showed a correlation between PO and MO (morpheme-only). Children with HFA used grammatical morpheme information to understand general sentences. We found that the ability to use prosodic information in children with HFA is significantly lower than that of normally developed children. Considering the relevance of prosody to linguistic, nonlinguistic and emotional aspects of communication, improving prosodic perception is thought to be a way to mediate deficits in the comprehension of ambiguous sentences in children with HFA.

Keywords : High functioning autism, Syntactically ambiguous sentence comprehension, Affectively ambiguous sentence comprehension, Prosodic perception
꽌濡

씤媛꾩 궗쉶 援ъ꽦썝뱾 媛 긽샇옉슜쓣 넻빐 옄떊쓽 깮媛곸쓣 쟾떖븳떎. 슚怨쇱쟻씤 긽샇옉슜쓣 쐞빐꽌뒗 젙蹂댁쓽 쟾떖 肉먮쭔 븘땲씪 媛먯젙쓣 援먮쪟븯뒗 궗쉶쟻 긽샇옉슜씠 븘슂븯떎. 뼵뼱뒗 궗쉶쟻 긽샇옉슜쓽 二쇱슂 룄援щ줈꽌 떎뼇븳 긽吏뺤쓣 솢슜븯뿬 궡슜쓣 쟾떖븳떎. 뼵뼱쓽 쟻젅븳 궗슜怨 씠빐瑜 쐞빐꽌뒗 臾몄옣 궡 룷븿맂 떎뼇븳 젙蹂대 솢슜븯뿬 빐떦 쓽誘몃 寃곗젙븯뒗 臾몄옣 쓽誘 泥섎━ 怨쇱젙씠 븘닔쟻씠떎. 씠윭븳 臾몄옣 쓽誘 泥섎━ 怨쇱젙 臾몄옣쓽 遺꾩젅, 遺꾩젅맂 臾몄옣쓽 쓽誘 솗씤 諛 뿰寃고븯뒗 怨쇱젙쓣 룷븿븯怨 엳쑝硫, 泥옄뒗 씠윭븳 怨쇱젙쓣 넻빐 臾몄옣쓽 援ъ“, 留λ씫, 솕옄쓽 쓽룄瑜 뙆븙븳떎. 슫쑉 젙蹂대뒗 臾몄옣 쓽誘 泥섎━ 怨쇱젙쓽 泥 踰덉㎏ 怨쇱젙씤 臾몄옣 遺꾩젅 떒怨꾩뿉꽌 留ㅼ슦 以묒슂븳 뿭븷쓣 븳떎(Johnson and Jusczyk, 2001)怨 븣젮졇 엳湲 븣臾몄뿉 泥옄뒗 蹂듭옟븳 臾몄옣쓽 넻궗 援ъ“쓽 紐낅즺솕瑜 쐞빐 씠瑜 솢슜븯뒗 寃껋씠 以묒슂븯떎.

슫쑉 솕옄쓽 媛먯젙, 솕쓽 珥덉젏 벑쓽 留λ씫긽 蹂씤뱾쓽 꽕젙뿉 뵲씪 洹 꽦寃⑹씠 寃곗젙릺硫, 씠젃寃 궛異쒕맂 臾몄옣 슫쑉뿉룄 젙蹂닿 궡룷릺뼱 엳湲 븣臾몄뿉 臾몄옣 씠빐뿉 븘닔쟻 슂냼 以 븯굹媛 맂떎(Chang and Kim, 2005). 삉븳슫 쑉 뼱쐶, 援ъ“, 긽솴쟻 以묒쓽꽦쓣 媛吏 臾몄옣 씠빐뿉룄 룄쓣 以떎. 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣쓽 씠빐(ambiguous sentence comprehension)뒗 泥옄媛 넻궗쟻쑝濡 紐⑦샇븳 臾몄옣쓣 뱽怨 솕옄쓽 쓽룄瑜 젙솗븯寃 씠빐븯뒗 寃껋쓣 쓽誘명븯뒗뜲, 씪諛섏쟻쑝濡 以묒쓽꽦쓣 쓣뒗 臾몄옣 솕옄媛 臾몃㎘씠굹 슫쑉 蹂솕瑜 넻빐 쟾떖븯湲 븣臾몄뿉 泥옄媛 씠윭븳 젙蹂대 솢슜븯吏 紐삵븷 寃쎌슦 以묒쓽꽦쓣 씤떇븯吏 紐삵븯寃 맂떎. 븘룞뱾쓽 諛쒕떖怨쇱젙뿉꽌 슫쑉 泥섎━뒗 뼵뼱쓽 씠빐 몴쁽씠씪뒗 愿젏뿉 엳뼱꽌 뼵뼱 뒿뱷쓽 以묒슂븳 遺遺꾩씠떎. 슫쑉옄룞泥섎━(prosodic bootstrapping) 紐⑤뜽怨 愿젴맂 뿰援ъ뿉 뵲瑜대㈃ 슫쑉 쓬슫, 援щЦ, 쓽誘 諛쒕떖湲 씠쟾遺꽣 뒿뱷릺뒗 寃껋쑝濡 蹂닿퀬 엳떎(Christophe et al., 2001). 젙긽 諛쒕떖 븘룞쓽 寃쎌슦 媛 3꽭 臾대졄뿉 슫쑉 닔슜 뒫젰쓣 뒿뱷븯뿬 湲 臾몄옣쓽 쓽誘몃 뙆븙븷 븣 媛뺤꽭瑜 솢슜븯怨, 4~5꽭 젙룄뿉뒗 슫쑉 젙蹂대 꽦씤怨 쑀궗븳 諛⑸쾿쑝濡 솢슜븯誘濡 슫쑉 젙蹂댁쓽 빐꽍 뒫젰 痢〓㈃쑝濡쒕쭔 궡렣蹂 寃쎌슦 臾몄옣쓣 遺꾨퀎븯뒗 뜲 뼱젮씠 뾾떎(Beach et al., 1996; Choi and Mazuka, 2003; Kim and Kim, 2004; Choi and Mazuka, 2009). 슫쑉뿉 뵲씪 떎瑜닿쾶 빐꽍븷 닔 엳뒗 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣쓽 寃쎌슦 3~4꽭 븘룞뱾룄 슫쑉 떒룆 젙蹂대쭔쑝濡 빐떦 臾몄옣쓽 쓽誘몃 꽦씤怨 쑀궗븯寃 蹂蹂 媛뒫븯쑝硫, 슫쑉 젙蹂대굹 삎깭냼 젙蹂댁뿉 뵲씪 떎瑜닿쾶 빐꽍 媛뒫븳 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣쓽 寃쎌슦 5~6꽭 븘룞룄 슫쑉 젙蹂 떒룆 議곌굔뿉꽌뒗 꽦씤蹂대떎 닔뻾젰씠 쑀쓽븯寃 궙 寃껋쑝濡 諛앺議뚮떎(Choi, 2009).

옄룓꽦옣븷(autism disorders, AD) 삉뒗 옄룓뒪럺듃읆옣븷(autistic spectrum disorders, ASD)뒗 쟾泥 듅닔援먯쑁 긽 以 꽭 踰덉㎏濡 넂 鍮꾩쑉쓣 李⑥븯怨 엳뒗 옣븷쑀삎(Special Education Annual Report, 2012)쑝濡 궗쉶愿怨꾩 긽샇옉슜뿉 떖媛곹븯怨 吏냽쟻씤 엫긽쟻 寃고븿씠 엳쑝硫 궗쉶쟻 긽샇옉슜뿉 寃고븤씠 엳怨 씠뿉 궗슜릺뒗 뼵뼱, 鍮꾩뼵뼱쟻 쓽궗냼넻뿉 몢뱶윭吏 寃고븿씠 議댁옱븳떎. 옄룓꽦옣븷 븘룞쓽 寃쎌슦 媛 떎瑜 吏덊솚뿉꽌 諛쒓껄릺뒗 寃껉낵뒗 떎瑜닿쾶 鍮꾩쟾삎쟻씤 몴쁽 슫쑉(expressive prosody)쓣 媛吏怨 엳湲 븣臾몄뿉 옄룓 슫쑉 궗씠쓽 뿰愿꽦 삤옒 쟾遺꽣 쓽떖릺뼱 솕떎. 옄룓꽦옣븷 삉뒗 옄룓뒪럺듃읆옣븷뿉꽌 슫쑉怨 愿젴맂 16媛쒖쓽 뿰援щ 寃넗븳 뿰援(McCann and Peppé, 2003)뿉 뵲瑜대㈃, 遺遺꾩쓽 꽑뻾 뿰援щ뒗 몴쁽 슫쑉뿉 以묒젏쓣 몦 諛섎㈃ 슫쑉쓽 닔슜 湲곗닠(receptive skills)뿉 븳 뿰援щ뒗 嫄곗쓽 뾾뿀떎. 遺遺꾩쓽 臾명뿄 떎뼇븳 媛먯젙 몴쁽쓣 씠슜븯뿬 젙꽌쟻 슫쑉쓽 吏媛곸씠굹 슫쑉뿉꽌 젙떊 긽깭 삉뒗 젙꽌쟻 긽깭瑜 씠빐븯뒗뜲 二쇰줈 以묒젏쓣 몢뿀떎(Kleinman et al., 2001; Rutherford et al., 2002; Golan et al., 2007; Peppé et al., 2007; Järvinen-Pasley et al., 2008). 씠뱾 遺遺꾩쓽 뿰援щ뒗 뼵뼱쟻 떒꽌媛 쓳떟뿉 誘몄튂뒗 쁺뼢쓣 留됯린 쐞빐 쓽誘몄쟻 以묐┰ 臾몄옣(semantically neutral sentences)쓣 궗슜븯뿬 뿰援ы븯뒗뜲, 洹 寃곌낵 옄룓꽦옣븷瑜 媛吏怨 엳뒗 븘룞, 泥냼뀈 諛 꽦씤 뿰졊쓣 씪移섏떆궓 議곗쭛떒뿉 鍮꾪빐 젙꽌 긽깭瑜 씠빐븯뒗뜲 븘슂븳 蹂듭옟븳 쓬꽦 몴쁽(삁, 떦샊媛, 옄遺떖)쓽 泥섎━뿉 옣븷瑜 蹂댁씤떎怨 二쇱옣븯떎(Kleinman et al., 2001; Rutherford et al., 2002; Golan et al., 2007). 떎瑜 뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗 떒씪 떒뼱 닔以뿉꽌 쓬꽦쓣 넻빐 臾섏궗릺뒗 醫뗭븘븿怨 醫뗭븘븯吏 븡쓬쓽 솗씤뿉꽌 옄룓꽦옣븷瑜 媛吏 븘룞쓽 젙솗룄 젏닔媛 뜑 궙 寃껋쑝濡 굹궗떎(Peppé et al., 2007; Järvinen-Pasley et al., 2008).

怨좉린뒫 옄룓꽦옣븷(high-functioning autism, HFA)뒗 DeMyer et al. (1981)뿉 쓽빐 泥섏쓬 냼媛쒕릺뿀쑝硫 吏꾨떒 泥닿퀎긽 젙긽 踰붿<뿉 媛源뚯슫 옄룓꽦뼢쓣 媛吏 鍮꾧났떇쟻씤 슜뼱濡 닔슜 諛 몴쁽 뼵뼱쓽 닔以씠 젙긽 踰붿<씠硫 긽쟻쑝濡 씫湲 뒫젰씠 슦닔븯吏留 솕슜濡좉낵 異붾줎 뒫젰쓽 뼱젮쓣 媛吏꾨떎. Tsai (1992)뒗 鍮꾩뼵뼱꽦 吏뒫씠 70 씠긽씠怨, 궗쉶쟻 긽샇옉슜怨 쓽궗냼넻뿉꽌 빟媛꾩쓽 鍮꾩젙긽 삉뒗 諛쒕떖쓽 넀긽怨 젣븳쟻씠怨 諛섎났맂 뻾룞쓣 닔諛섑븯硫 씠윭븳 듅吏뺤씠 3꽭 씠쟾뿉 異쒗쁽븳떎怨 븯떎. 듅엳 슫쑉, 媛뺤빟怨 媛숈 以뼵뼱(paralinguistics) 紐몄쭞, 몴젙, 紐⑹냼由ъ쓽 넂궙씠 媛숈 鍮꾩뼵뼱쟻 떒꽌 泥섎━ 뒫젰쓽 寃고븿씠 몢뱶윭吏꾨떎(Paul et al., 2009; Cleland et al., 2010). 듅엳 怨좉린뒫 옄룓꽦 吏묐떒 젙긽 諛쒕떖 議곗쭛떒怨 鍮꾧탳븯뿬 援щЦ쟻 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣뿉꽌 援щЦ쓣 紐낇솗븯寃 븯湲 쐞빐 슫쑉 젙蹂대 씠슜븷 媛뒫꽦씠 긽떦엳 궙븯쑝硫(Diehl et al., 2008), 슫쑉 떒꽌 諛 쓽誘 떒꽌瑜 媛먯젙怨 옄뿰뒪읇寃 넻빀븯뒗 뒫젰뿉꽌 꽑깮쟻씤 넀긽쓣 媛吏怨 엳뒗 寃껋쑝濡 諛앺議뚮떎(Singh and Harrow, 2014).

옄룓꽦옣븷 슫쑉 吏媛 뒫젰 媛꾩쓽 뿰愿꽦씠 議댁옱븳떎硫 옄룓꽦옣븷쓽 씪遺 痢〓㈃ 쟻뼱룄 슫쑉 옣븷쓽 痢〓㈃쓣 蹂댁씪 닔 엳쑝誘濡, 씠뱾 媛꾩쓽 긽愿愿怨꾨 솗由쏀븿쑝濡쒖뜥 옄룓꽦옣븷쓽 蹂몄쭏뿉 븳 씠빐瑜 넂씠怨 씠 愿젴맂 쓽궗냼넻 옣븷쓽 씪遺 痢〓㈃쓣 媛쒖꽑븷 닔룄 엳쓣 寃껋씠떎. 洹몃윭굹 옄룓꽦옣븷뿉꽌 슫쑉 옣븷뿉 愿븳 닔留롮 꽌닠쟻 꽕紐낆뿉룄 遺덇뎄븯怨 듅엳 젙긽쟻씤 吏쟻 뒫젰쓣 蹂댁쑀븯怨 엳뒗 怨좉린뒫 옄룓꽦옣븷 吏묐떒쓽 슫쑉 吏媛 뒫젰뿉 愿븳 泥닿퀎쟻씤 뿰援щ뒗 젣븳릺뼱 엳떎.

뵲씪꽌 蹂 뿰援щ뒗 怨좉린뒫 옄룓꽦옣븷 븘룞씠 臾몄옣쓽 쓽誘 뙆븙쓣 쐞빐 슫쑉 젙蹂대 泥섎━븿뿉 엳뼱 寃고븿씠 엳뒗吏瑜 議곗궗븷 紐⑹쟻쑝濡 怨좉린뒫 옄룓꽦옣븷 븘룞怨 깮솢뿰졊(chronological age, CA)쓣 씪移섏떆궓 鍮꾩옣븷 븘룞쓣 긽쑝濡 슫쑉 吏媛 뒫젰쓣 궡렣蹂댁븯떎. 씠瑜 쐞빐 넻궗쟻 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣 씠빐(syntactically ambiguous sentence comprehension, SASC) 諛 젙꽌쟻 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣 씠빐(affectively ambiguous sentence comprehension, AASC) 愿젴맂 怨쇱젣瑜 떎떆븯뿬 긽湲 몢 怨쇱젣쓽 닔뻾젰쓣 鍮꾧탳븯떎.

옱猷 諛 뿰援щ갑踰

뿰援щ긽옄

蹂 뿰援ъ쓽 吏꾪뻾뿉 븵꽌 遺궛媛넧由븰援 湲곌깮紐낆쑄由ъ쐞썝쉶(Institute Review Board, CUPIRB)쓽 듅씤쓣 諛쏆븯떎(듅씤踰덊샇: CUPIRB-2014-043). 삉븳 떎뿕쓣 吏꾪뻾븯湲 쟾뿉 뿰援ъ쓽 紐⑹쟻, 긽, 吏꾪뻾 젅李 諛 媛쒖씤 젙蹂 蹂댁븞뿉 븳 븞궡臾몄쓣 援먯궗 삉뒗 移섎즺궗뿉寃 쟾떖븳 썑 紐⑤뱺 긽옄 蹂댄샇옄뿉寃 異⑸텇븳 꽕紐낆쓣 젣怨듯븯쑝硫 紐⑤뱺 긽옄뱾濡쒕꽣 룞쓽꽌瑜 諛쏆븯떎. 蹂 뿰援ъ쓽 긽옄뒗 遺궛 · 寃쎈궓吏뿭뿉 嫄곗<븯뒗 珥덈벑 븰뀈(1~3븰뀈)쓽 怨좉린뒫 옄룓꽦옣븷 븘룞 15紐, 깮솢뿰졊쓣 씪移섏떆궓 鍮꾩옣븷 븘룞 15紐낆쑝濡, 珥 30紐낆쓣 긽쑝濡 븯떎. 怨좉린뒫 옄룓꽦옣븷 븘룞 (1) 냼븘젙떊怨쇱쓽궗媛 떎떆븳 DSM-IV-TR (APA, 2000)쓽 吏꾨떒 湲곗뿉 뵲씪 옄룓꽦옣븷濡 吏꾨떒 諛쏆 븘룞 삉뒗 긽꽭遺덈챸쓽 쟾諛섏쟻 諛쒕떖옣븷(pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, PDD-NOS)濡 吏꾨떒諛쏄굅굹 쓽떖맂떎怨 蹂닿퀬맂 븘룞 以 (2) 븳援삎 븘룞湲 옄룓꽦 룊젙泥숇룄(CARS, childhood autism rating scale: Kim and Park, 2006)뿉꽌 30젏 씠긽 젏닔瑜 쉷뱷븯怨, (3) 븳援삎 移댁슦봽留 븘룞슜 吏뒫寃궗룄援ъ씤 K-ABC (Kaufman Assessment Battery for Korean Children, Moon and Byun, 2009)뿉꽌 룞옉꽦 吏뒫씠 70 씠긽씠硫, (4) 몴以솕맂 뼵뼱 諛쒕떖 寃궗[援щЦ 쓽誘 씠빐젰 寃궗(Korea Sentence Comprehension Test, KOSECT) (Pae et al., 2004); 닔슜 · 몴쁽뼱쐶젰寃궗(Receptive & Expressive Vocabulary Test, REVT) (Kim et al., 2009)]뿉꽌 젙긽쟻씤 뼵뼱 諛쒕떖쓣 굹궡硫 떆媛 諛 泥媛 벑쓽 媛먭컖 옣븷瑜 룞諛섑븯吏 븡 븘룞쑝濡 꽑젙븯떎.

깮솢뿰졊씪移 븘룞 遺紐 諛 援먯궗뿉 쓽빐 뼵뼱 뒫젰 諛 吏쟻 뒫젰씠 젙긽씠씪怨 蹂닿퀬맂 븘룞 以묒뿉 (1) 닔슜 · 몴쁽 뼱쐶젰寃궗 寃곌낵 빐떦 뿰졊쓽 -1 SD (Standard Deviation)씠긽씤 븘룞 以 (2) K-ABC (Moon and Byun, 2009)쓽 룞옉꽦 吏뒫씠 85 씠긽씠怨, (3) 怨좉린뒫 옄룓꽦옣븷 븘룞怨 깮솢뿰졊쓣 ±3媛쒖썡 씠궡濡 씪씪 쓳떆궓 븘룞뱾濡 꽑젙븯떎.

뿰援 룄援

넻궗쟻 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣 씠빐 怨쇱젣뒗 Choi and Mazuka (2003) 諛 Choi (2009)쓽 떎뿕쓣 닔젙, 蹂댁셿빐꽌 젣옉븯떎. 臾몄옣 씠빐뿉 슫쑉 젙蹂닿 룆옄쟻쑝濡 湲곗뿬븯뒗 젙룄瑜 寃넗븯湲 쐞빐 媛 臾몄옣쓽 떒꽌瑜 슫쑉 떒룆(prosody-only, PO), 삎깭냼 떒룆(morpheme-only, MO), 슫쑉+삎깭냼 蹂듯빀(prosody+morpheme, PM) 議곌굔쑝濡 遺꾨쪟븯뿬 몢 媛吏 쓽誘몃줈 빐꽍맆 닔 엳뒗 臾몄옣쓣 궗쟾뿉 끃쓬븳 썑 긽옄뿉寃 뱾젮二쇨퀬, 媛 떒꽌뿉 뵲瑜 몢 吏묐떒(븘룞 怨좉린뒫 옄룓꽦옣븷 븘룞, 깮솢뿰졊쓣 씪移섏떆궓 鍮꾩옣븷 븘룞)쓽 닔뻾젰 李⑥씠瑜 솗씤븯떎.

슫쑉 떒룆 議곌굔 “臾댁뾿 癒뱀뼱?” 媛숈 臾몄옣쓣 삎깭냼瑜 鍮꾨’븳 臾몃쾿쟻씤 젙蹂대 깮왂븯怨 젣떆뻽쓣 븣 긽옄媛 슫쑉 젙蹂대쭔쑝濡 쓽誘몃 뙆븙븯怨 쓽誘몄뿉 留욊쾶 떟쓣 븯뒗吏瑜 궡렣蹂댁븯떎. 泥 踰덉㎏濡 젣떆릺뒗 臾몄옣쓽 삁濡 “臾댁뾿쓣 癒밸땲?”뒗 뼱뼡 쓬떇쓣 癒밴퀬 엳뒓깘瑜 臾삳뒗 寃쎌슦濡, 臾댁뾿怨 癒뱀뼱 궗씠뿉 돹씠 뾾嫄곕굹 吏㏓떎(援ъ껜쟻 떟蹂 議곌굔). 몮吏 뿭떆 “臾댁뾿 癒뱀뼱?” 씪뒗 臾몄옣씠吏留 臾댁뼵媛瑜 癒밴퀬 떢땲/엳땲? 씪뒗 쓽誘몃줈 ’臾댁뾿’怨 ’癒밸땲’ 궗씠뿉 돹씠 긽쟻쑝濡 湲멸퀬, 泥 떒뼱씤 ’臾댁뾿’ 걹쓣 궡吏 삱젮꽌 씫뒗 寃쎌슦(꽕/븘땲슂 떟蹂 議곌굔)瑜 留먰븳떎. 삎깭냼 떒룆 議곌굔 슫쑉 떒꽌 떊 삎깭냼 떒꽌留뚯쑝濡 臾몄옣쓣 뙆븙븷 닔 엳뒗媛瑜 룊媛븳떎. 슫쑉 젙蹂대 뾾븷湲 쐞빐 addcast MEDIA TECHNOLOGY 궗쓽 臾몄옄쓬꽦(text-to-speech)蹂솚 봽濡쒓렇옩씤 Vocalware (New York, NY. USA)瑜 씠슜븯뿬 媛 쓬젅쓽 怨좎 뾾씠 룞씪븳 넠怨 吏꾪룺쓣 쑀吏븯룄濡 븯떎. 삎깭냼+슫쑉 蹂듯빀 議곌굔 슫쑉怨 삎깭냼 떒꽌瑜 紐⑤몢 젣떆븯뒗 臾몄옣쑝濡, 씪諛섏쟻씤 쓽궗냼넻 긽솴뿉꽌 臾몄옣쓣 留먰븷 븣 룞씪븳 寃쎌슦씠떎. 寃궗 臾명빆 “遺뺤뼱鍮듬㉨뼱슂” 媛숈 넻궗쟻 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣쑝濡 ’遺뺤뼱媛 鍮듭쓣 癒밸뒗떎’泥섎읆 <二쇱뼱+紐⑹쟻뼱+꽌닠뼱>濡 빐꽍릺뒗 臾몄옣怨 ’늻援곌 遺뺤뼱鍮듭쓣 癒밸뒗떎’ 媛숈씠 <紐⑹쟻뼱+꽌닠뼱>濡 빐꽍맆 닔 엳뒗 臾몄옣쑝濡 臾명빆 援ъ꽦쓣 븯떎. 痢≪젙 議곌굔蹂 寃궗 臾명빆 珥 14臾명빆쑝濡 <二쇱뼱+紐⑹쟻뼱+꽌닠뼱>濡 빐꽍릺뒗 臾몄옣 7臾명빆怨 <紐⑹쟻뼱+꽌닠뼱>濡 빐꽍릺뒗 臾몄옣 7臾명빆쑝濡 援ъ꽦븯떎. 媛 議곌굔蹂 臾명빆 Syntrillium Software Corporation궗쓽 臾대즺 쓬썝렪吏 봽濡쒓렇옩씤 Cool Edit v2.1 (Phoenix, AZ, USA)濡 끃쓬 썑 臾대즺 쓬꽦 遺꾩꽍 봽濡쒓렇옩씤 Praat(Spuistraat, Amsterdam, Netherlands)쓣 넻빐 遺꾩꽍븯떎. 理쒖쥌 꽑젙 臾명빆 Adobe Systems쓽 Adobe Flash (San Jose, CA, USA)濡 젣옉븯뿬 븘룞뿉寃 寃궗瑜 吏꾪뻾븯떎.

젙꽌쟻 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣 씠빐 怨쇱젣뒗 Park (2010)怨 Kleinman et al. (2001)쓽 슫쑉뿉 뵲瑜 젙꽌 援щ텇 怨쇱젣瑜 李멸퀬븯뿬 젣옉븯떎. 臾몄옣 <二쇱뼱+紐⑹쟻뼱+꽌닠뼱>濡 援ъ꽦릺硫 6~9쓬젅濡 넻젣븯떎. 빐떦 怨쇱젣뒗 슫쑉쓣 씠슜븯뿬 臾몄옣쓽 젙꽌 援щ텇븷 닔 엳룄濡 쓽誘몄쟻쑝濡 以묒쓽쟻 젙꽌瑜 媛吏 8臾몄옣뿉 3媛吏 씪李⑥쟻씤 媛먯젙(湲곗겏, 뒳뵒, 솕)쓽 슫쑉쓣 媛곴컖 떎뼱꽌 珥 24臾명빆쓣 留뚮뱺 썑, 媛먯젙쓣 몴븷 닔 엳뒗 洹몃┝(썐뒗 몴젙, 슦뒗 몴젙, 솕궃 몴젙)쓣 Adobe Flash (San Jose, CA, USA)濡 젣옉븯뿬 븘룞뿉寃 쟻젅븳 洹몃┝쓣 꽑깮븯룄濡 슂援ы븯떎. 젙꽌쟻 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣 씠빐 怨쇱젣쓽 紐⑤뱺 臾몄옣뱾 Cool Edit v2.1 (Phoenix, AZ, USA)濡 끃쓬븯떎.

뿰援 怨쇱젣 젣옉 怨쇱젙 諛 떦룄 寃利

蹂 뿰援щ 吏꾪뻾븯湲곗뿉 븵꽌 쟻젅븳 寃궗 臾명빆쓣 媛쒕컻븯湲 쐞빐 넻궗쟻 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣 씠빐 怨쇱젣뿉 궗슜븷 臾몄옣 10媛쒖 젙꽌쟻 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣 씠빐 怨쇱젣뿉 궗슜븷 臾몄옣 8媛쒕 媛곴컖 꽑젙븯떎. 넻궗쟻 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣 씠빐 怨쇱젣쓽 쓬꽦 쟾吏 湲곗긽 罹먯뒪꽣뿉寃 쓽猶고븯뿬 젣옉븯怨, 젙꽌쟻 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣 씠빐 怨쇱젣쓽 쓬꽦 寃쎈젰 10뀈쓽 援ъ뿰룞솕 媛뺤궗뿉寃 쓽猶고븯뿬 젣옉븯떎.

젣옉맂 洹몃┝怨 쓬꽦쓽 궡쟻 떦룄瑜 븣븘蹂닿린 쐞빐 寃쎈젰 3뀈 씠긽쓽 怨좉린뒫 옄룓꽦옣븷 븘룞쓣 以묒옱 以묒씤 뼵뼱 移섎즺궗 3紐낆씠 寃넗 썑 寃궗 臾명빆怨 洹몃┝뿉 븳 젙諛섏쓳씠 궙 臾몄옣怨 洹몃┝뿉 븳 젙諛섏쓳씠 궙 넻궗쟻 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣 씠빐 怨쇱젣 臾명빆 3媛쒕 젣쇅븯떎. 蹂 뿰援щ 쐞빐 꽑젙맂 넻궗쟻 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣 씠빐 怨쇱젣 臾명빆 珥 21媛, 젙꽌쟻 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣 씠빐 怨쇱젣 臾명빆 珥 24媛쒖떎.

뿰援 젅李

議곗슜븳 諛⑹뿉꽌 긽옄媛 怨쇱젣뿉 吏묒쨷븷 닔 엳룄濡 寃궗 옣냼瑜 理쒕븳 넻젣븯떎. 紐⑤뱺 떎뿕 怨쇱젣뒗 媛쒕퀎쟻쑝濡 떎떆븯쑝硫, 뿰援ъ옄 留덉<蹂닿퀬 븠 긽솴뿉꽌 떎뿕쓣 吏꾪뻾븯떎. 蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌 젣옉맂 Flash 뙆씪쓣 깭釉붾┸(tablet)뿉 옣븳 썑 긽옄뿉寃 怨쇱젣瑜 젣떆븯쑝硫, 긽옄뒗 젣떆릺뒗 臾몄옣쓣 뱾 썑 꽣移섏뒪겕由곗쓣 씠슜븯뿬 쓳떟븯룄濡 슂泥븯떎. 蹂 뿰援ъ옄뒗 긽옄뱾쓽 넻궗쟻 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣 씠빐 怨쇱젣 젙꽌쟻 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣 씠빐 怨쇱젣쓽 寃궗 寃곌낵 솗씤뿉 궗슜븯湲 쐞빐 뿰뒿 怨쇱젣媛 떎떆릺湲 씠쟾遺꽣 긽옄 蹂 怨쇱젣 씠 吏꾪뻾 룞븞 吏냽쟻쑝濡 쁺긽쓣 끃솕瑜 븯떎.

蹂 뿰援щ뒗 뿰援 긽옄뱾뿉寃 異⑸텇븳 쑕떇 떆媛꾩쓣 젣怨듯븯湲 쐞빐 넻궗쟻 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣 씠빐 怨쇱젣瑜 癒쇱 떎떆븳 썑 異⑸텇븳 媛꾧꺽쓣 몢怨 젙꽌쟻 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣 씠빐 怨쇱젣瑜 떎떆븯떎. 媛 怨쇱젣쓽 臾명빆 媛 媛꾧꺽 긽옄媛 臾명빆뿉 븳 쓳떟쓣 븳 썑, 2珥 썑 떎쓬 臾명빆씠 젣떆릺룄濡 꽕젙븯떎. 媛 怨쇱젣뒗 蹂 怨쇱젣 쟾 꽭 媛쒖쓽 뿰뒿 怨쇱젣瑜 몢뼱 긽옄쓽 씠빐瑜 룙怨, 留뚯빟 긽옄媛 臾명빆쓣 씠빐븯吏 紐삵븷 寃쎌슦 寃궗瑜 以묒븯떎. 삉븳 긽옄쓽 슂援ш 엳쓣 떆 븳 踰 뜑 뱾젮二쇨퀬 씠썑 꽑깮븯吏 紐삵븷 떆 삤떟쑝濡 泥섎━븯떎.

넻궗쟻 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣 씠빐 怨쇱젣뒗 以묒쓽꽦쓣 쓧 臾몄옣쓣 媛 떒꽌蹂꾨줈 굹늻뼱 슫쑉+삎깭냼 蹂듯빀, 삎깭냼 떒룆, 슫쑉 떒룆 닚꽌濡 떎떆븯쑝硫, 媛 臾몄옣 슫쑉 諛 삎깭냼 떒꽌쓽 諛곗튂뿉 뵲씪 쓽誘멸 떖씪吏 닔 엳뒗 臾몄옣쑝濡 援ъ꽦릺뿀떎. 젙꽌쟻 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣 씠빐 怨쇱젣뒗 쓽誘몄쟻 以묐┰ 臾몄옣뿉 꽭 媛吏 媛먯젙(湲곗겏, 뒳뵒, 솕)쓣 떎뼱 珥 24臾명빆쑝濡 援ъ꽦릺뿀쑝硫, 룞씪븳 臾몄옣 삉뒗 젙꽌媛 以묐났릺吏 븡寃 諛곗튂븯떎.

옄猷 遺꾩꽍 諛 넻怨 泥섎━

媛 怨쇱젣뒗 븘룞씠 꽑깮븳 洹몃┝씠 젣떆맂 臾몄옣怨 씪移섑븯硫 1젏, 洹몃젃吏 븡쑝硫 0젏쓣 遺뿬븯떎. 怨좉린뒫 옄룓꽦 옣븷 븘룞怨 깮솢뿰졊씠 씪移섑븯뒗 鍮꾩옣븷 븘룞쓽 슫쑉 젙蹂 솢슜씠 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣 씠빐젰뿉 誘몄튂뒗 쁺뼢怨 吏묐떒 媛 李⑥씠瑜 鍮꾧탳븯湲 쐞빐 떎쓬怨 媛숈씠 遺꾩꽍븯떎.

泥レ㎏, 넻궗쟻 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣 씠빐 怨쇱젣뿉꽌 떒꽌뿉 뵲씪 臾몄옣 씠빐쓽 李⑥씠瑜 븣湲 쐞빐 씠슂씤 諛섎났痢≪젙 遺꾩궛遺꾩꽍(Two way repeated measures ANOVA)쓣 떎떆븯떎. 吏묐떒궡 슂씤 슫쑉 떒룆 議곌굔, 삎깭냼 떒룆 議곌굔, 슫쑉+삎깭냼 蹂듯빀 議곌굔쑝濡 꽕젙븯쑝硫, 吏묐떒 媛 李⑥씠뒗 怨좉린뒫 옄룓 븘룞, 깮솢뿰졊씪移 븘룞쑝濡 援щ텇븯뿬 닔뻾젰쓣 궡렣蹂댁븯떎. 媛 吏묐떒 궡뿉꽌 議곌굔뿉 뵲瑜 닔뻾젰쓣 諛섎났 痢≪젙븯뿬 떒꽌쓽 二 슚怨 諛 吏묐떒怨 떒꽌 媛꾩쓽 긽샇옉슜 슚怨쇰 궡렣蹂댁븯떎. 삉븳 怨좉린뒫 옄룓꽦옣븷 븘룞怨 깮솢뿰졊씪移 븘룞 吏묐떒 媛 넻궗쟻 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣 씠빐 怨쇱젣뿉꽌 쑀쓽誘명븳 李⑥씠媛 엳뒗吏瑜 븣湲 쐞빐 t-寃젙쓣 떎떆븯떎. 몮吏, 젙꽌쟻 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣 씠빐 怨쇱젣뿉꽌 吏묐떒 媛 슫쑉 吏媛곸뿉 뵲瑜 젙꽌 씠빐쓽 李⑥씠瑜 븣湲 쐞빐 씪썝遺꾩궛遺꾩꽍(one-way ANOVA)쓣 떎떆븯떎. 뀑吏, 넻궗쟻 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣 씠빐 怨쇱젣쓽 떒꽌(슫쑉 떒룆, 삎깭냼 떒룆, 슫쑉+삎깭냼 蹂듯빀) 젙꽌쟻 臾몄옣 씠빐 怨쇱젣 媛 긽愿愿怨꾨 븣湲 쐞빐 Pearson 긽愿遺꾩꽍(correlation analysis)쓣 떎떆븯떎. 蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗 SPSS for Window 21쓣 궗슜븯뿬 옄猷 遺꾩꽍쓣 떎떆븯떎.

寃곌낵

넻궗쟻 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣 씠빐

怨좉린뒫 옄룓꽦옣븷 븘룞怨 깮솢뿰졊씪移 븘룞 몢 吏묐떒쓽 넻궗쟻 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣 씠빐 젏닔뿉 吏묐떒 媛 李⑥씠媛 엳뒗吏 븣븘蹂닿린 쐞븯뿬 議곌굔뿉 뵲瑜 吏묐떒 媛 臾몄옣 씠빐 뒫젰쓣 궡렣蹂댁븯떎. 吏묐떒 媛 湲곗닠넻怨 寃곌낵뒗 Table 1怨 媛숇떎(Fig. 1. 李몄“). 怨좉린뒫 옄룓꽦옣븷 븘룞쓽 쟾泥 룊洹 젏닔뒗 10.1 (SD=2.57), 깮솢뿰졊씪移 븘룞쓽 쟾泥 룊洹 젏닔뒗 12.8 (SD=1.23)濡 깮솢뿰졊씪移 븘룞씠 怨좉린뒫 옄룓꽦 옣븷 븘룞蹂대떎 넂寃 굹궗떎. 씠瑜 議곌굔 蹂꾨줈 궡렣蹂대㈃ 꽭 떒꽌 議곌굔(슫쑉 떒룆 떒꽌, 삎깭냼 떒룆 떒꽌, 슫쑉+삎깭냼 蹂듯빀 떒꽌)뿉꽌 怨좉린뒫 옄룓꽦옣븷 븘룞蹂대떎 깮솢뿰졊씪移 븘룞뿉꽌 넻궗쟻 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣쓽 씠빐젰씠 넂寃 굹궗떎. 씠윭븳 寃곌낵媛 넻怨꾩쟻쑝濡 쑀쓽 븳吏 븣븘蹂닿린 쐞빐 씠슂씤 諛섎났痢≪젙遺꾩꽍쓣 떎떆븯뒗뜲, 씠 寃곌낵뿉 뵲瑜대㈃ 吏묐떒(F(1,28)=25.06, P<0.001) 諛 떒꽌쓽 二 슚怨(F(2,56)=13.21, P<0.001)媛 諛쒓껄릺뼱 넻怨꾩쟻쑝濡 쑀쓽븳 寃껋쑝濡 諛앺議뚯쑝굹, 떒꽌 吏묐떒쓽 긽샇옉슜슚怨쇰뒗 넻怨꾩쟻쑝濡 쑀쓽븯吏 븡 寃껋쑝濡 굹궗떎(Table 2). 떒꽌뿉 뵲瑜 二 슚怨쇨 굹궗湲 븣臾몄뿉 뼱뼡 떒꽌 媛꾩뿉 넻怨꾩쟻쑝濡 쑀쓽븳 李⑥씠媛 엳뒗吏瑜 솗씤븯湲 쐞빐 쓳몴蹂 寃젙쓣 떎떆븯떎(Table 3). 씠 寃젙 寃곌낵뿉 뵲瑜대㈃ 怨좉린뒫 옄룓꽦옣븷 븘룞 吏묐떒 넻궗쟻 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣쓣 씠빐븯뒗뜲, 삎깭냼 떒룆 떒꽌, 슫쑉+삎깭냼 蹂듯빀 떒꽌, 슫쑉 떒룆 떒꽌 닚쑝濡 닔뻾젰씠 넂 寃껋쓣 븣 닔 엳뿀떎. 삉븳 삎깭냼 떒룆 議곌굔怨 슫쑉+삎깭냼 蹂듯빀 議곌굔, 슫쑉+삎깭냼 蹂듯빀 議곌굔怨 슫쑉 떒룆 議곌굔, 슫쑉 떒룆 議곌굔怨 삎깭냼 떒룆 議곌굔 媛꾩뿉 쑀쓽븳 닔뻾젰쓽 李⑥씠젏씠 諛쒓껄릺뿀떎.

Descriptive statistics of syntactically ambiguous sentence comprehension performance by HFA and CA groups

ConditionsPOMOPMTotal scores
Groups
HFA (n=15)8.8 (2.34)11.5 (2.67)10.1 (2.71)10.1 (2.57)
CA (n=15)11.5 (2.26)13.5 (0.52)13.4 (0.91)12.8 (1.23)
Total (n=30)10.2 (2.3)12.5 (1.60)11.8 (1.81)11.5 (1.9)

Values are presented as mean (SD).

Abbreviations: HFA, high-functioning autism; CA, chronological age; PO, Prosody-only condition; MO, Morpheme-only condition; PM, Prosody+Morpheme complex condition.


Fig. 1.

Mean scores of syntactically ambiguous sentence comprehension performance by HFA and CA groups. Abbreviations: HFA, high-functioning autism; CA, chronological age; PO, Prosody-only condition; MO, Morpheme-only condition; PM, Prosody+Morpheme complex condition


Two way repeated measures ANOVA for syntactically ambiguous sentence comprehension performance

  SourceSSdfMean squareF
Between groupsGroups162.001162.6825.06***
Errors181.78286.50
WithinConditions86.96243.4813.21***
Conditions*groups6.6923.35.37
Errors184.40563.30

Total621.8389

P-values < 0.05, 0.01 and 0.001 are indicated by *, ** and ***, respectively


Paired sample T-test for syntactically ambiguous sentence comprehension performance in HFA group

ConditionsMean differenceStandard errortConditions
PO-MO2.36.55-4.30***10.1 (2.57)
MO-PM.80.302.62*12.8 (1.23)
PM-PO1.56.523.03**11.5 (1.9)

P-values < 0.05, 0.01 and 0.001 are indicated by *, ** and ***, respectively.

Abbreviations: PO, Prosody-only condition; MO, Morpheme-only condition; PM, Prosody+Morpheme complex condition


젙꽌쟻 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣 씠빐

怨좉린뒫 옄룓꽦옣븷 븘룞怨 깮솢뿰졊씪移 븘룞쓽 슫쑉 吏媛곸뿉 뵲瑜 젙꽌쟻 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣 씠빐 뒫젰뿉 李⑥씠媛 엳뒗吏 븣븘蹂닿린 쐞븯뿬 t-寃젙쓣 떎떆븯떎(Table 4). 몢 吏묐떒쓽 젙꽌쟻 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣 씠빐 怨쇱젣쓽 닔뻾젰쓣 鍮꾧탳빐 蹂 寃곌낵 怨좉린뒫 옄룓꽦옣븷 븘룞쓽 쟾泥 룊洹 젏닔뒗 15.13 (SD=4.15)씠怨, 깮솢뿰졊씪移 븘룞쓽 쟾泥 룊洹 젏닔뒗 19.13 (SD=4.64)쑝濡 굹궗떎. 怨좉린뒫 옄룓꽦옣븷 븘룞 깮솢뿰졊씪移 븘룞蹂대떎 젙꽌쟻 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣쓣 씠빐븯뒗뜲 뼱젮쓣 蹂댁쑝硫, 몢 吏묐떒쓽 닔뻾젰 넻怨꾩쟻 쑀쓽븳 李⑥씠(t=0.019, P<0.01)瑜 굹궡뿀떎.

T-test of affectively ambiguous sentence comprehension performance by HFA and CA groups

M(SD)Standard Errort
HFA15.13 (4.15)1.072.49*
CA19.13 (4.64)1.20

P-values < 0.05 are indicated by *.

Abbreviations: HFA, high-functioning autism; CA, chronological age.


넻궗쟻 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣怨 젙꽌쟻 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣 씠빐젰쓽 긽愿愿怨

怨좉린뒫 옄룓꽦옣븷 븘룞쓽 넻궗쟻 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣 씠빐젰怨 젙꽌쟻 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣 씠빐젰 媛꾩쓽 긽愿愿怨꾨 솗씤븯湲 쐞빐 Pearson 긽愿怨꾩닔瑜 援ы븯떎(Table 5). 긽愿遺꾩꽍 寃곌낵, 怨좉린뒫 옄룓꽦옣븷 븘룞 吏묐떒 슫쑉+삎깭냼 蹂듯빀 떒꽌 삎깭냼 떒룆 떒꽌뒗 쑀쓽븳 긽愿(r=0.73)쓣 蹂댁뿬二쇱뿀쑝굹 洹 쇅, 떎瑜 蹂씤 媛꾩뿉뒗 긽愿愿怨꾨 蹂댁씠吏 븡븯떎.

Pearson correlation coefficients between variables of syntactically and affectively ambiguous sentence comprehension performance in HFA group

PMPOMOAASC
PM.059.735**.341
PO.041.334
MO.077
AASC

P-values < 0.05, 0.01 are indicated by *, **, respectively.

Abbreviations: HFA, high-functioning autism; PO, Prosody-only condition; MO, morpheme-only condition; PM, Prosody+Morpheme complex condition; AASC, affectively ambiguous sentence comprehension.


깮솢뿰졊씪移 븘룞쓽 넻궗쟻 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣 씠빐젰怨 젙꽌쟻 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣 씠빐젰 媛꾩쓽 긽愿愿怨꾨 솗씤븯湲 쐞빐 Pearson 긽愿怨꾩닔瑜 援ы븯떎(Table 6). 긽愿遺꾩꽍 寃곌낵, 슫쑉+삎깭냼 蹂듯빀 떒꽌뒗 떎瑜 蹂씤 媛 긽愿愿怨꾨 蹂댁씠吏 븡븯쑝굹, 슫쑉 떒룆 떒꽌뒗 젙꽌쟻 슫쑉 씠빐 怨쇱젣 쑀쓽븳 긽愿(r=0.530)쓣 蹂댁뿬二쇱뿀떎. 삎깭냼 떒룆 떒꽌 젙꽌쟻 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣 씠빐 怨쇱젣뒗 쑀쓽븳 긽愿愿怨꾨 蹂댁씠吏 븡븯떎.

Pearson correlation coefficients between variables of syntactically and affectively ambiguous sentence comprehension performance in CA group

PMPOMOAASC
PM.409.122.172
PO.383.530*
MO.058
AASC

P-values < 0.05 are indicated by *.

Abbreviations: HFA, high-functioning autism; CA, chronological age; PO, Prosody-only condition; MO, morpheme-only condition; PM, Prosody+Morpheme complex condition; AASC, affectively ambiguous sentence comprehension.


怨좎같

옄룓꽦옣븷 솚옄쓽 슫쑉 吏媛 뼇긽 쑀븘湲곗뿉 넀긽맆 닔룄 엳쑝硫(Kuhl et al., 2005), 씠뱾쓽 슫쑉쟻 寃고븿 옄룓꽦옣븷 븘룞쓽 珥덇린 諛쒕떖 怨쇱젙뿉 엳뼱꽌 媛옣 癒쇱 뱶윭굹뒗 臾몄젣濡 쓽궗냼넻뿉 겕寃 쁺뼢쓣 誘몄튂吏 븡뒗 븘룞遺꽣 떖媛곹븳 寃고븿쑝濡 씠뼱吏뒗 븘룞源뚯 렪李④ 留ㅼ슦 겕寃 굹궃 寃껋쑝濡 蹂닿퀬릺怨 엳떎(Bonneh et al., 2011; DePape et al., 2012). 씠윭븳 슫쑉쟻 寃고븿쓽 李⑥씠뒗 궗쉶꽦 諛 쓽궗냼넻 湲곕뒫쓽 벑湲됯낵 쑀쓽븯寃 愿젴씠 엳뒗 寃껋쑝濡 諛앺議뚯쑝硫(Paul et al., 2005), 옄룓꽦옣븷 븘룞쓽 媛옣 겙 臾몄젣뒗 슫쑉쟻 씠긽씠 떎瑜 뼵뼱 쁺뿭쓽 諛쒕떖뿉 愿뿬븷 肉먮쭔 븘땲씪 씤깮 쟾諛섏뿉 嫄몄퀜 怨꾩냽 쁺뼢쓣 誘몄튇떎뒗 젏뿉 엳떎(Schoen et al., 2010).

蹂 뿰援щ뒗 怨좉린뒫 옄룓꽦옣븷 븘룞怨 깮솢뿰졊씪移 븘룞쓣 긽쑝濡 臾몄옣 쓽誘 泥섎━ 怨쇱젙뿉꽌 슫쑉 젙蹂대 솢슜븯뿬 臾몄옣쓽 쓽誘몃 씠빐븯怨 젙꽌瑜 뙆븙븯뒗 뒫젰뿉 李⑥씠媛 엳뒗吏 솗씤븯湲 쐞빐 넻궗쟻 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣 씠빐怨쇱젣 젙꽌쟻 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣 씠빐 怨쇱젣瑜 떎떆븯떎. 癒쇱, 넻궗쟻 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣 씠빐 怨쇱젣쓽 珥 젏닔瑜 鍮꾧탳븳 寃곌낵, 3媛吏 꽭遺 怨쇱젣씤 슫쑉 떒룆 議곌굔, 삎깭냼 떒룆 議곌굔, 슫쑉+삎깭냼 蹂듯빀 議곌굔 紐⑤몢 怨좉린뒫 옄룓꽦옣븷 븘룞 깮솢뿰졊씪移 븘룞뿉 鍮꾪빐 닔뻾젰씠 븯릺뼱 엳뼱 뼵뼱쟻 뒫젰뿉 李⑥씠媛 엳뒗 寃껋쑝濡 굹궗떎. 洹몃윭굹 몢 吏묐떒쓽 븘룞뱾 紐⑤몢 삎깭냼 떒룆 議곌굔, 슫쑉+삎깭냼 蹂듯빀議곌굔, 슫쑉 떒룆 議곌굔쓽 怨쇱젣 닚쑝濡 닔뻾젰씠 넂寃 굹궗쑝硫, 듅엳 怨좉린뒫 옄룓꽦옣븷 븘룞怨 깮솢뿰졊씪移 븘룞 몢 吏묐떒 紐⑤몢 슫쑉+삎깭냼 蹂듯빀 떒꽌 삎깭냼 떒룆 떒꽌媛 젣떆릺뿀쓣 븣蹂대떎 슫쑉 떒룆 떒꽌媛 젣떆릺뿀쓣 븣 닔뻾젰씠 뜑 궙븯떎. 삉븳 怨좉린뒫 옄룓꽦옣븷 븘룞 꽭 떒꽌(슫쑉 떒룆, 삎깭냼 떒룆, 슫쑉+삎깭냼 蹂듯빀) 紐⑤몢뿉꽌 臾몄옣 씠빐 뒫젰씠 깮솢뿰졊씪移 븘룞 吏묐떒蹂대떎 쑀쓽誘명븯寃 궙 寃껋쑝濡 굹궗떎. 씠뒗 怨좉린뒫 옄룓꽦옣븷 븘룞怨 깮솢뿰졊씪移 븘룞 吏묐떒 媛 넻궗쟻 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣 씠빐뿉 李⑥씠瑜 蹂댁씠硫, 怨좉린뒫 옄룓꽦옣븷 븘룞 吏묐떒 궡뿉꽌 媛 떒꽌뿉 뵲씪 씠빐 뒫젰쓽 李⑥씠瑜 蹂댁씠뒗 寃껋쑝濡 鍮꾨줉 怨좉린뒫 옄룓꽦옣븷 븘룞씠 깮솢뿰졊씪移 븘룞뿉 鍮꾪빐 뼵뼱쟻 諛쒕떖 뒭吏留, 諛쒕떖 怨쇱젙 鍮꾩듂븳 寃껋쑝濡 쑀異뷀븷 닔 엳떎. 蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌 솗씤븳 씪諛 븘룞뱾쓽 寃곌낵뒗 븰졊쟾湲 븘룞(3~6꽭)쓣 긽쑝濡 슫쑉 젙蹂 깘吏 뜑遺덉뼱 씠瑜 臾몄옣 빐꽍뿉 쟻젅엳 쟻슜븷 닔 엳뒗 議곌굔뿉 빐 궡렣蹂 Choi (2009)쓽 뿰援 寃곌낵 씪移섑븳떎. 슫쑉 젙蹂대굹 삎깭냼 젙蹂댁뿉 뵲씪 떎瑜닿쾶 빐꽍씠 媛뒫븳 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣뿉 븳 씠빐瑜 슫쑉, 삎깭냼, 洹몃━怨 슫쑉怨 삎깭냼 蹂듯빀 젙蹂 議곌굔뿉꽌 떎떆븳 寃곌낵 슫쑉怨 삎깭냼 蹂듯빀 議곌굔, 삎깭냼 議곌굔뿉꽌 5~6꽭 븘룞쓽 닔뻾젰 꽦씤쓽 닔以怨 嫄곗쓽 쑀궗븳 諛섎㈃ 슫쑉 議곌굔뿉꽌뒗 꽦씤蹂대떎 쑀쓽븯寃 궙 寃껋쑝濡 諛앺議뚮떎. 利, 삎깭냼 젙蹂대뒗 븘룞쓽 臾몄옣 씠빐뿉 湲곗뿬븯뒗 諛붽 겕떎뒗 寃껋쓣 솗씤븷 닔 엳쑝硫, 슫쑉 젙蹂대쭔쓣 떒룆쑝濡 솢슜븯뒗 뒫젰 븰졊 쟾 떆湲 븘룞뿉寃뚮뒗 븘吏 뼱졄떎怨 蹂댁뿬吏꾨떎. 洹몃윭굹 씠윭븳 슫쑉 젙蹂대 삎깭냼 젙蹂댁 넻빀븯뿬 臾몄옣 쓽誘 씠빐뿉 솢슜븷 닔 엳쑝誘濡, 븰졊 쟾 떆湲곗뿉 臾몃쾿삎깭냼쓽 젙솗븳 궗슜怨 씠빐뿉 븳 以묒슂꽦쓣 蹂 뿰援щ 넻빐 솗씤븷 닔 엳뿀떎. 븳렪, 怨좉린뒫 옄룓꽦옣븷 븘룞쓽 寃쎌슦 蹂 뿰援ъ쓽 寃곌낵뒗 씠뱾씠 넻궗쟻 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣쓣 씠빐븯湲 쐞빐 슫쑉쓣 씠슜븷 닔 엳뒗吏 뿬遺瑜 議곗궗븳 Diehl et al. (2008)쓽 뿰援 寃곌낵 쑀궗븯떎. 씠 뿰援ъ뿉 뵲瑜대㈃ 怨좉린뒫 옄룓꽦 吏묐떒 援щЦ쓣 紐낇솗븯寃 씠빐븯湲 쐞빐 슫쑉쓣 씠슜븷 媛뒫꽦씠 긽떦엳 궙븯吏留, 援щЦ留뚯쓣 떒룆쑝濡 젣떆븳 寃쎌슦 삉뒗 슫쑉怨 援щЦ 紐⑤몢瑜 쓳떟쓽 젙솗룄濡 굹궦 寃쎌슦뿉뒗 議곗쭛떒怨 鍮꾧탳븯뿬 닔뻾씠 鍮꾩듂븯떎. 씠윭븳 뿰援 寃곌낵뒗 씪諛 븘룞怨 怨좉린뒫 옄룓꽦옣븷 븘룞 紐⑤몢 슫쑉 젙蹂대쭔쑝濡 떒꽌媛 二쇱뼱吏 븣뿉뒗 臾몄옣쓣 씠빐븯뒗 寃껋씠 뜑 뼱젮슦硫, 怨좉린뒫 옄룓꽦 븘룞 슫쑉 젙蹂대 씠슜븯뿬 臾몄옣쓽 쓽誘몃 紐낇솗븯寃 븯뒗뜲 뜑 겙 뼱젮쓣 媛吏怨 엳쓬쓣 쓽誘명븳떎. 利, 怨좉린뒫 옄룓꽦옣븷 븘룞쓽 寃쎌슦 젣怨듬릺뒗 議곌굔뿉 뵲씪 넻궗쟻 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣 씠빐젰뿉 쑀쓽븳 李⑥씠媛 諛쒖깮맂떎怨 깮媛곹븷 닔 엳떎. 씠윭븳 寃곌낵뒗 怨좉린뒫 옄룓꽦옣븷 븘룞씠 깮솢뿰졊씪移 븘룞뿉 鍮꾪빐 슫쑉 吏媛 뒫젰씠 遺議깊븯떎뒗 꽑뻾 뿰援щ뱾뿉꽌 씠誘 諛앺吏 諛 엳떎(Lim and Sim, 2009; Peppé et al., 2011). 삉븳 몢 吏묐떒쓽 怨쇱젣 媛 쑀쓽誘명븳 李⑥씠뒗 怨좉린뒫 옄룓꽦옣븷 븘룞씠 臾몃쾿삎깭냼 쓽誘몄쟻 떒꽌뱾쓣 넻빀븯吏 紐삵븯怨 궗떎쟻 떒뼱뿉留 二쇱쓽瑜 湲곗슱뿬, 臾몄옣씠 쓽誘명븯뒗 쟾泥 궡슜쓣 씠빐븯뒗 뜲 뼱젮씠 엳떎뒗 뿰援 寃곌낵瑜 諛섏쁺븳떎(Ha, 2006). 듅엳 Myles et al.(2003) 怨좉린뒫 옄룓꽦옣븷 븘룞 깮솢뿰졊씪移 븘룞뿉 鍮꾪빐 몴쁽븯뒗 臾몄옣쓽 湲몄씠媛 吏㏐퀬, 뜙 蹂듭옟븳 뼇긽쓣 蹂댁씤떎怨 븯떎. 씠뒗 삎깭냼쓽 궗슜 뒫젰씠 깮솢뿰졊씪移 븘룞뿉 鍮꾪빐 遺議깊븿쓣 쓽誘명븯誘濡, 삎깭냼 떒룆 떒꽌쓽 닔뻾젰뿉룄 뼱뒓 젙룄 쁺뼢쓣 誘몄튌 寃껋쑝濡 異붿륫븷 닔 엳떎. 洹몃윭굹 蹂 뿰援ъ쓽 몢 吏묐떒 紐⑤몢뿉꽌 諛쒓껄맂 씎誘몃줈슫 젏 씠쟾 뿰援(Choi, 2009) 떖由 삎깭냼 떒룆 젙蹂닿 젣떆맂 寃쎌슦媛 슫쑉 삎깭냼 蹂듯빀 젙蹂닿 젣떆맂 寃쎌슦蹂대떎 긽쟻쑝濡 닔뻾젰씠 넂븯쑝硫, 怨좉린뒫 옄룓꽦옣븷 븘룞뱾 깮솢뿰졊 씪移 븘룞뿉 鍮꾪빐 紐⑤뱺 떒꽌 議곌굔뿉꽌 臾몄옣 씠빐 뒫젰씠 遺議깊븯쑝굹 슫쑉+삎깭냼 蹂듯빀 떒꽌 긽솴뿉꽌 媛옣 겙 李⑥씠瑜 蹂댁씤 젏씠떎. 씠뒗 삎깭냼 젙蹂닿 슫쑉 젙蹂대 꽆뼱 臾몄옣 쓽誘 泥섎━뿉 뜑 겙 湲곗뿬瑜 븯怨 엳쑝硫, 떎뻾 怨쇱젣뿉꽌 슂援щ릺뒗 씤吏쟻 遺븯瑜 以꾩씠硫 슫쑉 젙蹂닿 臾몄옣 援ъ“ 寃곗젙뿉 愿뿬븯뒗 議곌굔뱾뿉꽌룄 븘룞뱾쓽 닔뻾젰씠 뼢긽릺뒗 뼇긽(Snedeker and Yuan, 2008)쓣 蹂댁씤떎뒗 꽑뻾 뿰援 寃곌낵룄 씪移섑븳떎. 利, 臾몃쾿삎깭냼 슫쑉 떒꽌쓽 넻빀뿉룄 臾몄젣媛 엳뒗 寃껋쑝濡 異붿륫븷 닔 엳吏留, 洹 젙솗븳 湲곗쟾쓣 蹂 뿰援щ 넻빐 寃곗젙궡由ш린뒗 븳怨꾧 엳뼱 蹂댁씤떎.

蹂 뿰援ъ쓽 젙꽌쟻 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣 씠빐 怨쇱젣뿉꽌 슫쑉뿉 뵲瑜 젙꽌 씠빐 닔뻾젰쓣 鍮꾧탳븳 寃곌낵, 怨좉린뒫 옄룓꽦옣븷 븘룞 쑀쓽誘명븯寃 궙 닔뻾 닔以쓣 蹂댁뿬二쇱뿀떎. 씠뒗 怨좉린뒫 옄룓꽦옣븷 븘룞씠 젙꽌쟻 슫쑉 吏媛 뒫젰뿉 젣븳릺뼱 엳쑝硫, 깮솢뿰졊씪移 븘룞뿉 鍮꾪빐 슫쑉쓣 솢슜븯뿬 젙꽌쟻 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣쓣 씠빐븷 媛뒫꽦씠 쑀쓽븯寃 궙쓬쓣 쓽誘명븳떎. 湲곗〈 뿰援щ뱾뿉꽌룄 怨좉린뒫 옄룓꽦옣븷 븘룞쓽 슫쑉 뒫젰 媛쒖씤留덈떎 긽떦엳 李⑥씠瑜 蹂댁쑝굹 씪諛 븘룞뿉 鍮꾪빐꽌 쁽엳 궙븯쑝硫(Peppé et al., 2007), 듅엳 理쒖냼 뼵뼱쟻 湲곕뒫쓣 諛섏쁺븯뒗 젙꽌 怨쇱젣(affect task)뿉꽌 媛옣 李⑥씠瑜 蹂댁뿬 씪諛 븘룞뿉 鍮꾪빐 遺議깊븳 젙꽌 슫쑉 吏媛 뒫젰쓣 蹂댁쑀븯怨 엳쓬씠 諛앺議뚮떎(Diehl and Paul, 2012; Kim et al., 2013), 뵲씪꽌 怨좉린뒫 옄룓꽦옣븷 븘룞 援ъ뼱쟻 諛 鍮꾧뎄뼱쟻 젙蹂 泥섎━뿉 뼱젮쓣 蹂댁씠뒗 듅吏뺤쓣 媛吏怨 엳쑝誘濡 긽諛⑹쓽 媛먯젙 씠빐 궗쉶쟻 쓽궗냼넻뿉 엳뼱꽌 遺젙쟻씤 쁺뼢쓣 諛쏄쾶 맆 媛뒫꽦씠 넂떎. 듅엳, 씠윭븳 슫쑉 吏媛곸쓽 寃고븿뿉 빐 뿰援ъ옄뱾 留덉쓬씠濡(Baron-Cohen, 1997)씠굹 젙꽌쟻 泥섎━ 뒫젰쓽 寃고븿(Hobson, 2005)怨 愿젴씠 엳쓬쓣 젣븞븯怨 엳떎. 븳렪, 옄룓꽦옣븷씤쓽 寃쎌슦 留ㅼ슦 源뚮떎濡쒖슫 2李 怨쇱젣濡 二쇱쓽瑜 솚湲곗떆耳 씤吏 湲곕뒫쓽 遺븯瑜 利앷떆궓 議곌굔뿉꽌뒗 臾몄옣 닔以뿉꽌 젙꽌쟻 슫쑉 泥섎━ 옣븷(삁, 젙꽌쟻 슫쑉 泥섎━ 냽룄 븯)瑜 굹궡誘濡(Chevallier et al., 2011), 씠윭븳 寃곌낵뒗 젙떊 긽깭쓽 냽꽦 삉뒗 留덉쓬 씠濡좎쓽 醫 뜑 씪諛섏쟻씤 寃고븿쓣 諛섏쁺븷 닔룄 엳떎뒗 媛뒫꽦씠 젣湲곕릺怨 엳湲곕룄 븯떎. 뵲씪꽌, 씪諛 옄룓꽦옣븷 븘룞怨 떖由 怨좉린뒫 옄룓꽦옣븷 븘룞뱾씠 씤吏 뒫젰씠굹 꽭긽 吏떇, 삉뒗 븰뒿쓽 쁺뼢뿉 쓽빐 씪遺 궗쉶 씤吏(social cognition)瑜 뒿뱷븳 긽솴뿉꽌 굹궡뒗 留덉쓬씠濡좉낵 슫쑉 젙蹂댁쓽 솢슜쓣 臾몄옣 씠빐 愿젴 吏뼱 뿰援ы빐 蹂 븘슂媛 엳쓣 寃껋씠떎.

蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌, 二쇱슂蹂닔 媛 긽愿愿怨꾨 궡렣蹂대㈃ 怨좉린뒫 옄룓꽦옣븷 븘룞 씪諛섏쟻씤 臾몄옣쓽 씠빐뿉꽌 삎깭냼 떒룆 떒꽌 긽愿쓣 蹂댁씤 諛섎㈃, 깮솢뿰졊씪移 븘룞쓽 寃쎌슦 슫쑉 떒룆 떒꽌 젙꽌쟻 슫쑉 씠빐 媛 긽愿쓣 蹂댁떎. 씠뒗 怨좉린뒫 옄룓꽦옣븷 븘룞 臾몄옣 궡뿉꽌 슫쑉쓽 젙꽌 젙蹂대낫떎뒗 臾몄옣쓽 臾몃쾿삎깭냼瑜 솢슜븯뿬 젙꽌瑜 씤떇븳떎怨 蹂 닔 엳떎. 씪諛섏쟻쑝濡 臾몄옣쓣 씠빐븷 븣 슦由щ뒗 슫쑉 젙蹂대 씠슜빐 뼹援 몴젙씠굹 뻾룞뿉꽌 몴쁽릺뒗 留덉쓬 긽깭瑜 씫쓣 닔 엳떎. 슫쑉 吏媛 뒫젰씠 뼥뼱吏硫, 臾몄옣쓽 궡슜쓣 젙솗븯寃 씠빐븷 닔 뾾怨, 씠뒗 臾몄옣쓽 쟾泥댁쟻씤 쓽誘몃 옒紐 諛쏆븘뱾씠뒗 寃곌낵瑜 珥덈옒븳떎. 諛쒕떖 珥덇린쓽 븘湲곕뱾 뿭떆 슫쑉 젙蹂대 씠슜빐 뿬윭 쓽誘 젙蹂대 븿猿 泥섎━븯硫 씠뒗 슫쑉옄룞泥섎━룄 븣젮졇 엳떎. 븯吏留, 怨좉린뒫 옄룓꽦옣븷 븘룞 젙긽 諛쒕떖 븘룞蹂대떎 넻궗쟻 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣怨 젙꽌쟻 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣쓽 씠빐瑜 쐞빐 슫쑉쓣 솢슜븷 닔 엳뒗 湲곗닠씠 긽쟻쑝濡 궙떎뒗 궗떎쓣 蹂 뿰援щ 넻빐 솗씤븷 닔 엳뿀떎. 씠윭븳 寃곌낵뒗 怨좉린뒫 옄룓꽦옣븷 븘룞씠 씪諛 븘룞蹂대떎 슫쑉쓽議대룄媛 궙寃 굹궗떎뒗 뿰援(Kim et al., 2013; Kang et al., 2014) 씪移섑븳떎. 쓽궗냼넻쓽 뼵뼱쟻, 鍮꾩뼵뼱쟻 痢〓㈃怨 젙꽌쟻 痢〓㈃뿉 븳 슫쑉쓽 愿젴꽦쓣 怨좊젮븷 븣 슫쑉 吏媛 뒫젰쓣 利앷떆궎硫 쓽궗냼넻 뒫젰룄 뼢긽맆 肉 븘땲씪 궗쉶쟻 湲곗닠룄 醫뗭븘吏 寃껋쑝濡 깮媛곷릺湲 븣臾몄뿉 蹂 뿰援щ줈 諛앺吏 떒꽌뿉 뵲瑜 닔뻾젰쓣 李멸퀬븯뿬 怨좉린뒫 옄룓꽦옣븷 븘룞쓽 뼵뼱쟻 以묒옱 떆, 옄移 吏굹移섍린 돩슫 슫쑉 쁺뿭뿉 븳 以묒옱룄 怨좊젮빐빞 븷 寃껋쑝濡 깮媛곷맂떎.

蹂 뿰援ъ쓽 젣븳젏쑝濡쒕뒗 슦꽑, 蹂 뿰援ъ쓽 긽옄 닔媛 鍮꾧탳쟻 젣븳쟻씠湲 븣臾몄뿉 씪諛섑솕뿉 븳怨꾧 엳떎뒗 젏쓣 뱾 닔 엳떎. 삉븳, 넻궗쟻 뒫젰(듅엳 삎깭냼 떒룆 삉뒗 삎깭냼 룷븿)씠 슂援щ릺뒗 怨쇱젣뱾뿉꽌뒗 몢 吏묐떒 媛꾩쓽 李⑥씠媛 뾾怨, 슫쑉쟻 젙蹂 빐꽍 뒫젰씠 슂援щ릺뒗 怨쇱젣뿉꽌留 몢 吏묐떒 媛꾩쓽 李⑥씠媛 궇 븣 怨좉린뒫 옄룓 븘룞뱾쓽 떎瑜 뼵뼱 뒫젰 鍮 슫쑉 젙蹂 泥섎━ 뒫젰쓽 듅蹂꾪븳 젣븳쓣 끉쓽븷 닔 엳吏留 몢 吏묐떒 紐⑤몢 넻궗쟻 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣 씠빐쓽 꽭遺 怨쇱젣뿉꽌 鍮꾩듂븳 닔뻾젰 寃곌낵媛 굹굹 썑냽 뿰援щ뒗 뼵뼱뿰졊쓣 씪移섏떆궓 븘룞쓣 긽쑝濡 닔뻾젰쓣 鍮꾧탳빐 蹂댁븘빞 븷 寃껋쑝濡 깮媛곷맂떎. 듅엳 깮솢뿰졊씪移 븘룞留뚯쑝濡 븳젙븯뿬 닔뻾젰쓣 鍮꾧탳븯쑝誘濡 뼵뼱 諛쒕떖 떒怨꾩뿉 뵲瑜 슫쑉 吏媛 뒫젰쓣 솗씤븷 닔 뾾뿀뜕 젏 蹂 뿰援ъ쓽 젣븳젏쑝濡 궓뒗떎. 臾댁뾿蹂대떎, 넻궗쟻 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣 씠빐 怨쇱젣쓽 寃쎌슦 씠吏꽑떎삎쑝濡 援ъ꽦릺뼱 엳怨, 젙꽌쟻 以묒쓽꽦 臾몄옣 씠빐 怨쇱젣쓽 寃쎌슦 궪吏꽑떎삎쑝濡 援ъ꽦릺뼱 엳뼱 슦뿰쟻 젙떟 諛섏쓳씠 媛뒫븯뜕 寃껋쑝濡 뙋떒맂떎. 뵲씪꽌 젙떟瑜좎쓽 떊猶곕룄瑜 뼢긽떆궎湲 쐞빐 媛 臾명빆 궡 뿬윭 媛쒖쓽 꽑깮 빆紐⑹쓣 젣怨듯븷 븘슂媛 엳쓣 寃껋쑝濡 깮媛곷맂떎. 씠 媛숈 젣븳젏쓣 蹂댁셿븯뒗 怨좉린뒫 옄룓꽦옣븷 븘룞쓽 슫쑉뿉 愿븳 썑냽 뿰援ш 븘슂븷 寃껋씠떎.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This article was based on the first author’s master’s thesis from Catholic University of Pusan (2015).

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