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Feasibility of Total Body Score (TBS) and Accumulated Degree Days (ADD) in the Estimation of Postmortem Interval for Forensic Murder Casework
Biomed Sci Letters 2018;24:35-42
Published online March 31, 2018;  https://doi.org/10.15616/BSL.2018.24.1.35
© 2018 The Korean Society For Biomedical Laboratory Sciences.

Young Sam Kim1, Jong Hee Kim1, Kwang Sang Yoon1, Bong Soo Kweon1, Young Sik Kim1, Gwang Yeon Lee1, Hae-Won Cho2, Hye-Rim Kim2, and Yong-Bin Eom2,†

1Forensic Investigation Section, Detective Division, Gyeonggi Bukbu Provincial Police Agency, Uijeongbu, Gyeonggi 11763, Korea,
2Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, College of Medical Sciences, Soonchunhyang University, Asan, Chungnam 31538, Korea
Correspondence to: Yong-Bin Eom. Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, College of Medical Sciences, Soonchunhyang University, 22 Soonchunhyang-ro, Shinchang-myeon, Asan-si, Chungcheongnam-do 31538, Korea. Tel: +82-41-530-3039, Fax: +82-41-530-3085, e-mail: omnibin@sch.ac.kr
Received December 26, 2017; Revised February 8, 2018; Accepted February 12, 2018.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
 Abstract

Postmortem interval (PMI) is very important in the crime scene investigation. However, it is very difficult to estimate of the interval since death after a decomposition. Recently, there have been various studies on the postmortem interval since a decomposition. In particular, the total body score (TBS) and accumulated degree days (ADD) used to estimate the postmortem interval after a decomposition. This study was conducted with the aim of applying the TBS and ADD to estimate the postmortem interval in real forensic caseworks. In first murder case, TBS was 12 and ADD value was 132, respectively. An estimated time of PMI was around 23:00 on June 21, and the suspect’s statement was 01:20 on June 22. Our estimated interval since death and the suspect’s statement for the PMI differ by only 2 hours and 20 minutes. In second forensic case, TBS was 3 and ADD value was 55, respectively, an estimated time of PMI was around 02:26 on September 23. The suspect’s statement was 10:30 on September 23. Our estimated time and the suspect’s statement for the PMI differ by 8 hours. In these cases, we were able to have confirmed the feasibility of TBS and ADD on the real forensic cases. Overall, our finding suggested that the quantitative method could be used to produce PMI estimates that are accurate to within days or even hours.

Keywords : Postmortem interval, Decomposition, Total body score, Accumulated degree days
꽌濡

궗썑寃쎄낵떆媛(postmortem interval; PMI) 떆떊쓽 媛쒖씤떇蹂, 뵾쓽옄뿉 룷븿 삉뒗 諛곗젣 벑쓽 踰붿즲궗嫄 빐寃곌낵젙뿉꽌 以묒슂븳 젙蹂대 젣怨듯븳떎. 듅엳, 궡씤궗嫄댁쓽 寃쎌슦 寃쎌같 궗썑寃쎄낵떆媛꾩쓣 異붿젙븯뿬 媛빐옄瑜 諛곗젣븯嫄곕굹 紐⑷꺽옄 利앹뼵쓽 떊鍮숈꽦쓣 솗씤븯뒗뜲 궗슜븯湲곕룄 븳떎. 踰뺤떇臾쇳븰(Willey and Heilman, 1987), 넗뼇 遺꾩꽍踰(Vass et al., 1992), 깮솕븰쟻 遺꾩꽍踰(Sabucedo and Furton, 2003) 벑씠 궗썑寃쎄낵떆媛 異붿젙뿉 젙웾쟻씤 諛⑸쾿쑝濡 媛쒕컻릺뿀吏留, 궗嫄 쁽옣뿉 떇臾 삉뒗 넗뼇 깦뵆씠 議댁옱븯吏 븡嫄곕굹 利앷굅臾쇰줈 梨꾩랬릺吏 븡 寃쎌슦뿉 쟻슜븯뒗뜲 븳怨꾩젏씠 엳떎.

궗썑寃쎄낵떆媛 異붿젙뿉뒗 떆泥닿뎨쓬쁽긽, 떆泥댁뼹猷(De Saram, 1985), 떆泥댁껜삩븯媛(Marshall, 1969), 쐞 궡슜臾쇱쓽 냼솕 젙룄(Moore et al., 1984), 珥덉옄泥댁쓽 移쇰ⅷ 냽룄(Adjutantis et al., 1972) 벑쓣 쟻슜븯뒗 뿰援ш 엳뿀吏留 떆泥닿 넃뿬吏 솚寃, 媛쒖껜 李⑥씠 媛숈 留롮 슂씤쑝濡 李⑥씠瑜 蹂댁씪 닔 엳떎. 利, 떆泥 쁽긽留뚯쑝濡쒕뒗 궗留앹떆媛 異붿젙씠 뼱졄湲 븣臾몄뿉 떆泥 쁽긽 씠쇅쓽 궗빆뿉 빐꽌룄 怨좊젮빐빞 븳떎.

듅엳 遺뙣떆떊뿉꽌 궗썑寃쎄낵떆媛 異붿젙 踰뺢낀異⑺븰쟻(forensic entomology) 諛⑸쾿쓣 쟻슜븯뒗 뿰援щ뱾씠 엳뿀떎(Motter, 1898; Easton and Smith, 1970; Rodriguez and Bass, 1983). 洹몃윭굹 踰뺢낀異⑺븰쟻 諛⑸쾿뿉 쓽븳 궗썑寃쎄낵떆媛 異붿젙뿉뒗 留롮 삤瑜섍 諛쒓껄릺뿀怨 젙솗룄媛 뼥뼱吏꾨떎뒗 蹂닿퀬 삉븳 엳떎(Anderson, 2001; Goff, 2010; Villet et al., 2010). 삁瑜 뱾硫, 援щ뜑湲 깮꽦 뿴(Heaton et al., 2014), 泥댁삩 궗嫄(Ames and Turner, 2003), 怨ㅼ땐뱾쓽 寃쎌웳 슚怨(Ireland and Turner 2005), 怨ㅼ땐뱾씠 癒뱀씠瑜 癒뱀 썑 쑀二쇱꽦(Gomes et al., 2016), 씤젒 궇뵪 湲곕줉怨 誘몄꽭븳 湲고썑 李⑥씠(Dabbs, 2010) 벑씠 硫곗튌 삉뒗 紐 二 젙룄쓽 遺젙솗븳 궗썑寃쎄낵떆媛 異붿젙쓽 삤瑜섎 빞湲고븳떎.

떆떊쓽 遺뙣긽깭媛 諛-뿰냽쟻 蹂닔濡 痍④툒릺뼱 룷씤듃 湲곕컲 떆뒪뀥쓣 궗슜븯뿬 遺뙣 젙룄瑜 닔移섎줈 湲곕줉(total body score; TBS)븯怨, 떆떊씠 끂異쒕맂 솚寃쎌쓽 늻쟻삩씪룄(accumulated-degree-days; ADD)瑜 븿猿 怨좊젮븳 궗썑寃쎄낵떆媛 異붿젙씠 蹂대떎 젙솗븯떎怨 蹂닿퀬릺뿀떎(Moffatt et al., 2016). 蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗 Moffatt 벑쓽 諛⑸쾿쓣 떎젣 궡씤궗嫄 遺뙣떆떊뿉 쟻슜븯뿬 슦由щ굹씪 궗엺쓽 궗썑寃쎄낵떆媛 異붿젙 젙솗룄瑜 솗씤븯怨좎옄 븯떎.

옱猷 諛 諛⑸쾿

Case 1(뙆二 빞궛 궡씤궗嫄)

2017뀈 6썡 27씪 솕슂씪 삤썑 13떆寃, 寃쎄린룄 뙆二쇱떆 깂쁽硫 留뚯슦由 58-3踰덉 룄濡 쁿 댉뿉꽌 誘멸媛 떎醫낆떊怨좊맂 蹂궗옄 OOO씠 遺뙣맂 긽깭濡 궗留앺븳 寃껋쓣 궛梨낇븯뜕 뻾씤씠 諛쒓껄븯怨 떊怨좊 븯떎. 궗嫄 옣냼뒗 뙆二쇱떆 깂쁽硫댁뿉꽌 옄쑀濡 꽦룞 IC諛⑺뼢 룄濡(렪룄 1李⑤줈)쁿 24 m 뼥뼱吏 빞궛 댉씠硫, 蹂궗옄쓽 옄깮怨 8 km 뼥뼱吏 吏젏씠뿀떎. 諛쒓껄 吏젏 鍮꾪룷옣 엫룄(룺 2.7 m)濡 李⑤웾 吏꾩엯씠 媛뒫븯硫, 蹂궗옄뒗 諛섑뙏떚 諛섎컮吏瑜 李⑹슜븯怨 떊諛쒖 쁿뿉 넃뿬 엳뿀쑝硫 쑀瑜섑뭹 諛쒓껄릺吏 븡븯떎.

뙆二 빞궛 궡씤궗嫄 寃떆

媛. 蹂궗옄뒗 떊옣 빟 168 cm쓽 뿬꽦쑝濡, 諛쒖깮 쁽옣뿉꽌 寃떆瑜 떆뻾븿.

굹. 떆泥닿뎨쓬쁽긽(떆媛)怨 떆泥댁뼹猷(떆諛) 怨좊룄遺뙣濡 냼떎맂 긽깭엫.

떎. 븞寃寃곕쭑 궡 씪삁젏 怨좊룄遺뙣濡 愿李곕릺吏 븡쓬.

씪. 鍮꾧컯 諛 援ш컯 궡 怨⑥젅 벑쓽 듅씠 넀긽 愿李곕릺吏 븡쓬.

留. 몢젙遺 遺뙣濡 씤븯뿬 몢媛쒓낏씠 끂異쒕맂 긽깭濡 怨⑥젅 벑쓽 듅씠 넀긽 뾾쓬.

諛. 쟾寃쎈 듅씠 넀긽 愿李곕릺吏 븡쓬.

궗. 쓨遺 듅씠 넀긽 愿李곕릺吏 븡쓬.

븘. 긽蹂듬 諛 븯蹂듬 援щ뜑湲곗뿉 쓽븳 愿묐쾾쐞븳 뵾遺 옞떇씠 愿李곕맖.

옄. 뿬꽦 깮떇湲곕 솗씤븿.

李. 諛곕㈃遺 벑뿀由 遺쐞 援щ뜑湲곗뿉 쓽븳 愿묐쾾쐞븳 뵾遺 옞떇씠 愿李곕맖.

移. 醫뚯륫 쟾셿遺 愿묐쾾쐞븳 뵾遺 옞떇씠 愿李곕맖.

. 슦痢 쟾셿遺, 넀紐⑹쓽 뵾遺 옞떇씠 愿李곕맖.

뙆. 슦痢 뿀踰낆 遺쐞 뵾遺 옞떇씠 愿李곕맖.

븯. 뼇넀 諛 뼇諛쒖뿉 嫄댁“媛 吏꾪뻾맂 긽깭濡 듅씠 쇅긽 愿李곕릺吏 븞쓬.

遺뙣吏닔媛믪쓣 씠슜븳 TBS ADD: 遺뙣 젙룄瑜 닔移섎줈 湲곕줉븳 TBS 媛믪 癒몃━ 7젏, 紐명넻 2젏, 궗吏 3젏쑝濡 珥 12젏씠뿀떎. 떆떊씠 끂異쒕맂 솚寃쎌쓽 늻쟻삩씪룄(ADD) 怨꾩궛媛믪 떎쓬怨 媛숈씠 132씠뿀떎.

53.3+212125=log10ADD2.12=log10ADDADD=102.12ADD=131.8

TBS ADD瑜 쟻슜븳 궗썑寃쎄낵떆媛 異붿젙: TBS 媛믪씠 12젏, ADD 媛믪씠 132씠誘濡, 쁽옣뿉 異쒕룞븯뿬 理쒖큹 떆떊 諛쒓껄 궇遺꽣 늻쟻삩룄 媛 132瑜 湲곗긽泥 삩룄瑜 李멸퀬濡 븯뿬 뿭궛빐 굹媛 썑 늻쟻삩씪룄媛 떎 냼吏꾨릺뒗 떆젏씠 諛붾줈 궗留앹떆媛꾩씠씪뒗 寃껋쓣 異붿젙븷 닔 엳떎(Table 5).

Total body score (TBS) scales for the decomposed cadaver

StageFresh stageEarly decomposition stageAdvanced decomposition stageSkeletonization stage
Body part
Head, neck0 point1~5 points (Case 2)6~8 points (Case 1)9~12 points
Torso0 point1~4 points (Case 1&2)5~7 points8~11 points
Limbs0 point1~4 points (Case 1&2)5~6 points7~9 points

Stages and Total body score (TBS) scales of decomposition for the head

 Fresh stageFresh, no discoloration0 point
Early decomposition stagePinkish appearance accompanied by skin exfoliation and some hair loss1 point (Case 2)
Skin gray to green discolored: some flesh still relatively fresh2 points
The dry ends of nose, ears, and lips are brownish or discolored3 points
Decaying body fluid from the swollen parts of eyes, ears, nose, mouth, neck and face4 points
Skin is discolored from brown to black5 points

Advanced decomposition stageThe eyes and neck flesh were in a state of depression6 points
Bone exposure is less than one half, moist decomposition7 points (Case 1)
Bone exposure is less than one half, and the mummified state8 points

Skeletonization stageBone exposure is more than one half, with decomposed tissue and saponified material9 points
Bone exposures are more than one half, with mummified tissue or dried tissue10 points
Most bones are dry, but still some grease (saponification) remains11 points
Dry bones12 points

Stages and Total body score (TBS) scales of decomposition for the torso

  Fresh stageFresh, no discoloration0 point
Early decomposition stagePinkish appearance accompanied by skin exfoliation and marbling1 point (Case 2)
Skin gray to green discolored: some flesh still relatively fresh2 points (Case 1)
Decayed body fluids are discharged, with green discoloration and swelling3 points
The abdominal gas is discharged from the inflated state, and green to black discoloration4 points

Advanced decomposition stageDecreased (declining) abdominal cavity due to decomposition of tissue5 points
Bone exposure is less than one half, moist decomposition6 points
Bone exposure is less than one half, and the mummified state7 points

Skeletonization stageBones with decayed tissue (sometimes with body fluids and saponification)8 points
Dried bones or mummified tissue covering less than one half9 points
Most bones are dry, but still some grease (saponification) remains10 points
Dry bones11 points

Stages and Total body score (TBS) scales of decomposition for the limbs

  Fresh stageFresh, no discoloration0 point
Early decomposition stagePale pink appearance with skin peeling of hands and feet1 point (Case 2)
Skin is gray to green discolored: some flesh is still relatively fresh2 points
The dry ends of fingers, toes and other projecting limbs are brownish or discolored3 points (Case1)
Brown to black discoloration, skin is in the form of leather4 points

Advanced decomposition stageBone exposure is less than one half, moist decomposition5 points
Bone exposure is less than one half, and the mummified state6 points

Skeletonization stageBone exposure is more than one half, some decayed tissue and body fluid remains7 points
Most bones are dry, but still some grease(saponification) remains8 points
Dry bones9 points

Prediction intervals for total body scores of ground surface cadavers (TBSsurf) and accumulated degree days (ADD) estimates (°C)

TBSsurfLower limitADD EstimateUpper limit


95%75%50%50%75%95%
0213138496477108
1213239506578110
2223340526781114
3 (Case 2)23354255 (Case 2)7185120
4253745597591127
5274049638197137
63043536888105148
73348587596115162
836536483106127179
941597192118141199
10466680103132158223
11527590116149179252
12 (Case 1)5985103132 (Case 1)169203287
136898118151193232329
1479113135174222267380
1592130157201258310442
16107152183234300362518
17126178214274352425611
18149210252323416502726
19177249298383494598870
202102963554565897161048
212523534245467088621273
2230242450965785510451556
2336511615795103912751916
24440618745967126915642374
255347529071182155919302963
2664991711101452192623963273
27793112313631792239129924710
28971138116812222298537585998
291193170520822768374647467688
301470211225893464472560279919
3118162626323343555991769712880
3222513277405355007633988316830

떆떊 諛쒓껄 궇吏쒖쓽 삩룄瑜 援ы븯뒗 떇 = 쁽옣떆媛 × 湲곗긽泥 쁽옣룊洹좎삩룄 ÷ 븯猷 24떆媛꾩쑝濡 떎쓬怨 媛숈씠 怨꾩궛맂떎.

19h (쁽옣떆媛)×23.4C(룊洹좉린삩)÷24h=18.525C

洹몃윭誘濡 떆떊 諛쒓껄 궇吏쒖쓽 삩룄 18.525°C遺꽣 鍮쇱<硫댁꽌 뿭궛쓣 븳떎. 6썡 27씪 떆떊 諛쒓껄 궇吏 삩룄媛 18.525°C씠怨 떎쓬 뿭궛삩룄뒗 湲곗긽泥 삩룄 6/26 ~ 6/22源뚯 늻쟻 삩룄媛 쟾泥 112.1°C씠誘濡 18.525°C + 112.1°C = 130.625°C씠떎.

洹몃윭誘濡 쟾泥 늻쟻삩씪룄 132°C ~ 130.625°C = 1.375°C媛 궓뒗떎. 蹂궗옄 궗留앹떆媛꾩쓣 솗씤븯湲 쐞빐 留덉留 굹癒몄 삩룄 1.375°C × 24 h ÷ 留덉留됰궇(6썡 21씪)쓽 쁽옣 湲곗긽泥 삩룄 23.1°C濡 굹늻硫 1.428씠씪뒗 떆媛꾩쓣 援ы븷 닔 엳떎.

1.375C×24h÷23.1C=1.428

洹몃윴 썑 븯猷 24떆媛꾩뿉꽌 굹癒몄 삩룄濡 援ы븳 媛 1.428쓣 鍮쇱<硫 22.572떆媛, 諛섏삱由쇳븯뿬 궗留앹텛젙떆媛꾩씠 빟 23떆媛꾨줈 궛異쒕릺뿀떎. 利 궗留앹텛젙떆媛꾩 6썡 21씪 23떆엫쓣 븣 닔 엳떎(Table 6).

Daily average temperature (°C), TBS, ADD and estimation of PMI of the case 1

Date6/216/226/236/246/256/266/276/28
Temperature (°C)23.122.923.822.421.621.423.423.9

※ TBS: head 7 points, torso 2 points, limbs 3 points = 12 points; ADD: 132; 19 h (field time) × 23.4°C (average temperature) ÷ 24 h = 18.525°C; 6/22 ~ 6/26 total temperature = 112.1; 112.1 + 18.525 = 130.625; ∴ 132~130.625 = 1.375; 1.375 × 24 = 33; ∴ 33 ÷ 23.1 = 1.428; 24 hrs ~ 1.428 hrs = 22.572 hrs; PMI = June 21, 23:00.


24h~1.428h=22.572h,궗留앹텛젙떆媛(PMI)=62123:00

뵾빐옄 諛 뵾쓽옄 뻾쟻: 뵾빐옄뒗 6썡 20씪 08떆 28遺꾧꼍 二쇨굅吏뿉꽌 쇅異쒗븯뒗 옣硫댁씠 뿕由щ쿋씠꽣 CCTV뿉 珥ъ쁺릺뿀怨, 6썡 21씪 07떆 13遺꾧꼍 媛뺥솕룄뿉꽌 留덉留 쟾솕넻솕瑜 뻽쑝硫, 08떆 14遺꾧꼍 옄 移댄넚쓣 븯떎. 6썡 22씪 04:24遺꾧꼍 쑕룿 쟾썝씠 爰쇱죱怨, 6썡 26씪 궓렪씠 뙆異쒖냼瑜 諛⑸Ц븯뿬 떎醫낆떊怨좊 븳 寃껋씠떎. 뵾쓽옄 吏꾩닠뿉 뵲瑜대㈃ 6썡 22씪 01:25寃 뵾빐옄瑜 궡빐 썑 떆떊쓣 쑀湲고븯怨, 6썡 27씪 21:55 씤泥 媛뺥솕룄 룞寃룄 엯援ъ뿉꽌 寃嫄곕릺뿀떎.

뵾쓽옄 湲닿툒泥댄룷: 뵾쓽옄뒗 媛쒖씤깮떆湲곗궗濡 뵾빐옄 OOO (뿬, 45꽭)뒗 6뀈 쟾遺꽣 궡뿰愿怨꾩떎. 뵾빐옄 留먮떎댘쓣 븯硫 꽌濡 諛移섎ʼn 紐몄떥븯떎 뵾빐옄媛 꽆뼱吏옄 寃⑸텇븯뿬 李⑤웾 듃쟻겕뿉 蹂닿以묒씤 諛ㅼ깋 닔嫄(빟 70 cm)쓣 媛졇 뵾빐옄瑜 吏곸씠吏 紐삵븯寃 븯怨 뼇넀쑝濡 닔嫄댁쓣 옟怨 옒猿 뵾빐옄쓽 紐 遺쐞瑜 빟 5遺꾧컙 닃윭 洹 옄由ъ뿉꽌 궗留앺븯寃 븯떎. 뵾쓽옄뒗 옄떊쓽 李⑤웾쓣 怨 룄二쇳븯떎媛 李⑤웾닔諛곕 넻빐 諛쒓껄, 寃嫄곕맂 寃껋쑝濡 뙋궗濡쒕꽣 쁺옣쓣 諛쏆쓣 떆媛꾩쟻 뿬쑀媛 뾾뿀쑝誘濡 궡씤뵾쓽궗嫄댁뿉 愿븯뿬 뚰삎궗냼넚踰뺛 젣200議곗쓽3 젣1빆뿉 뵲씪 湲닿툒 泥댄룷맂 寃껋씠떎.

Case 2(뙆二 븯泥쒕 쁺븘쑀湲 궗嫄)

2017뀈 9썡 25씪 삤썑 8떆 40遺꾧꼍, 寃쎄린룄 뙆二쇱떆 삙쓬濡 1417踰덉 냼옱 愿묓깂援 떎由 諛 븯泥쒖뿉꽌 誘쇰Ъ李멸쾶 옟씠瑜 븯뜕 굾떆袁쇱씠 鍮④컙 媛諛 븞뿉꽌 쁺븘 떆떊씠 엳뒗 寃껋쓣 蹂닿퀬 寃쎌같뿉 떊怨좏븯떎. 떆떊씠 遺뙣릺뼱 怨쇳븰닔궗 媛옣 癒쇱 궗썑寃쎄낵떆媛꾩뿉 븳 臾몄젣뿉 洹李⑸릺뼱, Moffatt 벑씠 젣븞븳 젙웾쟻 諛⑸쾿쑝濡 遺뙣맂 떆떊뿉 遺뙣吏닔(TBS) 늻쟻삩씪룄(ADD)瑜 쟻슜븯뿬 궗썑寃쎄낵떆媛 異붿젙 젙솗룄瑜 솗씤븯떎(Moffatt et al., 2016).

뙆二 븯泥쒕 쁺븘쑀湲 궗嫄 寃떆

媛. 蹂궗옄뒗 49 cm 뿬븘濡 쁽옣 諛 옣濡떇옣뿉꽌 寃떆瑜 떆뻾븿.

굹. 떆泥닿뎨쓬쁽긽(떆媛) 遺뙣濡 씤빐 냼떎맂 긽깭엫.

떎. 떆泥댁뼹猷(떆諛) 遺뙣珥덇린濡 솗씤 遺덇뒫.

씪. 癒몃━뿉꽌뒗 뼇痢 痢〓몢遺媛 닃由곗콈 愿李곕릺怨 썑몢遺뿉꽌 遺醫낆씠 愿李곕맖.

留. 븞寃寃곕쭑(늿爰쇳씠쓬留) 李쎈갚븯寃 愿李곕맖.

諛. 븞硫대뿉꽌뒗 뼇痢 愿묐遺쐞뿉꽌 뵾遺 踰쀪꺼吏먯씠 愿李곕맖.

궗. 援ш컯뿉꽌뒗 듅蹂꾪븳 넀긽씠 愿李곕릺吏 븡쓬.

븘. 寃쎈뿉꽌뒗 듅蹂꾪븳 넀긽씠 愿李곕릺吏 븡쓬.

옄. 紐명넻뿉꽌뒗 30 cm 꺈以꾩씠 諛쒓껄릺怨 꺈以꾩쓽 걹 떒硫댁씠 遺덇퇋移숈쟻엫.

李. 뼇痢 넀 臾쇱뿉 遺덉 梨 愿李곕맖.

移. 뼇痢 諛쒖 臾쇱뿉 遺덉 梨 愿李곕맖.

. 떊옣 49 cm: 癒몃━ 11 cm, 紐명넻 24 cm, 떎由 14 cm.

5.8+212125=log10ADD1.74=log10ADDADD=101.74ADD=54.95

遺뙣吏닔媛믪쓣 씠슜븳 TBS ADD: 쁺븘 떆떊쓽 遺뙣 젙룄瑜 닔移섎줈 湲곕줉븳 TBS 媛믪 癒몃━ 1젏, 紐명넻 1젏, 궗吏 1젏쑝濡 珥 3젏씠뿀떎. 떆떊씠 끂異쒕맂 솚寃쎌쓽 늻쟻삩씪룄(ADD) 怨꾩궛媛믪 떎쓬怨 媛숈씠 55씠뿀떎.

TBS ADD瑜 쟻슜븳 궗썑寃쎄낵떆媛 異붿젙: TBS 媛믪씠 3젏, ADD 媛믪씠 55씠誘濡, 쁽옣뿉 異쒕룞븯뿬 理쒖큹 떆떊 諛쒓껄 궇遺꽣 늻쟻삩씪룄 媛 55瑜 湲곗긽泥 삩룄瑜 李멸퀬濡 븯뿬 뿭궛빐 굹媛 썑 늻쟻삩씪룄媛 떎 냼吏꾨릺뒗 떆젏씠 諛붾줈 궗留앹떆媛꾩씠씪뒗 寃껋쓣 異붿젙븷 닔 엳떎(Table 5).

떆떊 諛쒓껄 궇吏쒖쓽 삩룄瑜 援ы븯뒗 떇 = 쁽옣떆媛 × 湲곗긽泥 쁽옣삩룄 ÷ 븯猷 24떆媛꾩쑝濡 떎쓬怨 媛숈씠 怨꾩궛맂떎.

24h (쁽옣떆媛)×19.2C(룊洹좉린삩)÷24h=19.2C

洹몃윭誘濡 떆떊 諛쒓껄 궇吏쒖쓽 삩룄 19.2°C遺꽣 鍮쇱<硫댁꽌 뿭궛쓣 븳떎. 9썡 25씪 떆떊 諛쒓껄 궇吏 삩룄媛 19.2°C씠怨 떎쓬 뿭궛삩룄뒗 湲곗긽泥 삩룄 9썡 24씪 19°C씠誘濡 빀궛쓣 븯硫 19.2°C + 19°C = 38.2°C씠떎.

洹몃윭誘濡 쟾泥 늻쟻삩씪룄 55°C ~ 38.2°C = 16.8°C媛 궓뒗떎. 蹂궗옄 궗留앹떆媛꾩쓣 솗씤븯湲 쐞빐 留덉留 굹癒몄 삩룄 16.8°C × 24 h ÷ 留덉留됰궇(9썡 23씪)쓽 쁽옣 湲곗긽泥 삩룄 18.7°C濡 굹늻硫 21.56씠씪뒗 떆媛꾩쓣 援ы븷 닔 엳떎.

16.8C×24h÷18.7C=21.56

洹몃윴 썑 븯猷 24떆媛꾩뿉꽌 굹癒몄 삩룄濡 援ы븳媛 21.56쓣 鍮쇱<硫 2.44떆濡 궛異쒕릺뿀떎. 利 궗留앹텛젙떆媛꾩 9썡 23씪 02떆 26.4遺꾩엫쓣 븣 닔 엳떎(Table 7).

Daily average temperature (°C) TBS, ADD and estimation of PMI of the case 2

Date9/229/239/249/259/26
Temperature (°C)16.918.719.019.220.7

※ TBS: head 1 point, torso 1 point, limbs 1 point = 3 points; ADD 55; 24 h (field time) × 19.2°C (average temperature) ÷ 24 h = 19.2°C; 6/24 ~ 6/25 total temperature = 38.2; 19.2 + 19 = 38.2; ∴ 55~38.2 = 16.8; 16.8 × 24 = 403.2; ∴ 403.2 ÷ 18.7 = 21.56; 24 hrs ~ 21.56 hrs = 2.44; PMI = September 23, 02:26.


24h~21.56h=2.44h,궗留앹텛젙떆媛(PMI)=92302:26

뵾쓽옄 뻾쟻: 뵾쓽옄 궓怨 뿬, 씠뱾 2016뀈 9썡뿉 留뚮굹 援먯젣븳 궗씠濡 2017뀈 9썡 23씪 10떆 30遺꾧꼍 뵾쓽옄 뿬꽦 슃떎뿉꽌 濡 닔以 遺꾨쭔 썑 떎쓬궇 23떆寃 뵾쓽옄 궓怨 븿猿 뙆二 냼옱 븯泥쒕뿉 쁺븘瑜 떞 媛諛⑹쓣 뜕졇 쑀湲고븳 寃껋씠떎.

뵾쓽옄 泥댄룷: 9썡 26씪 11:35遺꾧꼍, 떞떦삎궗媛 쁽옣 깘臾명븯뒗 怨쇱젙뿉꽌 쁽옣뿉꽌 媛諛⑹쓣 李얠븘 떎瑜 怨녹뿉 쑀湲고븯젮뒗 留덉쓬쑝濡 꽌꽦嫄곕━뒗 뵾쓽옄뱾쓣 蹂닿퀬 씤쟻궗빆, 뿰씫泥 벑쓣 솗씤븯옄 뵾쓽옄뱾 옄떊쓽 씤쟻궗빆씠 닔궗湲곌뿉 븣젮졇 湲덈갑 옟옄 寃 媛숈븘 옄닔븳 寃껋씠떎.

寃곌낵 諛 怨좎같

遺뙣 諛 諛깃낏솕 떆떊怨 愿젴븯뿬 궗썑寃쎄낵떆媛꾩쓣 異붿젙븯뒗 寃껋 怨쇨굅 嫄곗쓽 遺덇뒫뿉 媛源뚯썱떎. 遺遺 怨ㅼ땐쓽 깮솢솚 遺꾩꽍쓣 넻빐 踰뺢낀異⑺븰쟻쑝濡 궗썑寃쎄낵떆媛꾩쓣 異붿젙븯뒗 젙룄떎(Amendt et al., 2007). 洹몃윭굹 洹멸쾬 떎뿕 諛⑸쾿씠 援됱옣엳 源뚮떎濡怨 삤옒 嫄몃━뒗 諛⑸쾿씠뿀湲곗뿉 踰뺢낀異⑺븰 쟾臾멸뱾쓣 젣쇅븯怨, 궗嫄 쁽옣뿉꽌 吏곸젒 궗썑寃쎄낵떆媛꾩씠 븘슂븳 寃쎌같뿉寃뚮뒗 遺꾨챸 遺떞뒪윭슫 寃껋씠 궗떎씠뿀떎.

洹몃옒꽌 꽌援 꽑吏 怨쇳븰옄뱾씠 삩룄 愿젴븳 떎뼇븳 뿰援ш껐怨쇰 룄異쒗븯怨, 洹멸납뿉꽌 깉濡寃 몢맂 寃껋씠 遺뙣吏닔(TBS)뿉 쓽븳 궗썑寃쎄낵떆媛 異붿젙씠뿀떎(Galloway et al., 1989). Megyesi 벑 遺뙣 젙룄媛 늻쟻삩씪룄(ADD) 뿰愿릺뼱 엳떎뒗 뿰援щ 넻빐 꽌濡 떎瑜 떊泥 遺쐞(癒몃━, 紐명넻, 궗吏)쓽 遺뙣 떒怨꾨퀎 遺뙣吏닔(TBS)瑜 몴(Table 1-4)濡 젙由ы븯뿬 諛쒗몴븯떎(Megyesi et al., 2005). 理쒓렐 Moffatt 벑 怨쇨굅 끉臾몃뱾뿉 븳 넻怨꾩쟻 삤瑜섎 닔젙븯뿬 궗썑寃쎄낵떆媛꾩쓣 異붿젙븯뒗뜲 궗슜븷 닔 엳룄濡 깉濡쒖슫 怨꾩궛떇怨 몴(Table 5)瑜 젣븞븯怨(Moffatt et al., 2016), 蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗 씠 젙웾쟻씤 諛⑸쾿쓣 슦由щ굹씪 떎젣 궡씤궗嫄댁뿉 쟻슜븯뿬 젙솗븳 궗썑寃쎄낵떆媛꾩쓣 異붿젙븯뿬 뵾쓽옄 뻾쟻怨 鍮꾧탳븯뿬 솗씤븯떎.

2017뀈 6썡怨 9썡뿉 寃쎄린遺곷吏諛⑷꼍李곗껌 궛븯 뙆二쇨꼍李곗꽌뿉꽌 諛쒖깮븳 궡씤궗嫄댁뿉 븳 蹂궗옄 궗留앹떆媛 異붿젙뿉 쟻슜븯떎. 삩룄쓽 룊洹좉컪쓣 뼸湲 쐞빐 湲곗긽泥쓽 씪二쇱씪 룊洹좎삩룄瑜 援ы뻽怨, 떆떊뿉 븳 遺뙣媛믪쓣 寃곗젙빐 怨듭떇뿉 엯븯뿬 遺뙣吏닔(TBS)瑜 뼸怨 遺뙣吏닔媛믪쓣 넻빐 늻쟻삩씪룄(ADD)瑜 援ы뻽떎. 떎쓬쑝濡쒕뒗 쟾泥 늻쟻삩씪룄뿉꽌 떆떊씠 諛쒓껄맂 궇遺꽣 늻쟻삩씪룄瑜 李④렐李④렐 鍮 媛硫댁꽌 궗留앹떆媛꾩쓣 뿭쑝濡 嫄곗뒳윭 삱씪 異붿젙븷 닔 엳뿀떎. 泥 踰덉㎏ 뙆二 궡씤궗嫄댁쓽 寃쎌슦 怨꾩궛媛믪쓽 寃곌낵뒗 궗留앹떆媛꾩 6썡 21씪 삤썑 11떆濡 룄異쒕릺뿀떎(Table 6). 뙆二 궡씤 궗嫄댁 떎뻾엳 슜쓽옄媛 씪李 옟삍怨 뵾쓽옄瑜 異붽턿븳 諛, 뵾쓽옄쓽 踰뷀뻾떆媛꾩 6썡 22씪 깉踰 1떆 20遺 쟾썑濡 굹솕떎. 利, 뵾쓽옄媛 留먰븳 踰뷀뻾떆媛꾩쓣 젙솗븳 뵾빐옄쓽 궗留앹떆媛꾩쑝濡 異붿젙븳떎硫 삤李⑤뒗 2떆媛 20遺 젙룄씠떎.

몢 踰덉㎏ 뙆二 쁺븘쑀湲 궗嫄댁쓽 寃쎌슦 PMI 怨꾩궛媛믪쓽 寃곌낵뿉 쓽븳 궗留앹떆媛꾩 9썡 23씪 삤쟾 2떆 26.4遺꾩쑝濡 룄異쒕릺뿀떎(Table 7). 洹몃윭굹 媛옣 以묒슂븳 寃껋 젙솗븳 궇吏쒖 鍮꾧탳븯뒗 寃껋씠뿀怨, 뙆二 쁺븘쑀湲 궗嫄 뿭떆 뵾쓽옄媛 씪李 옟삍怨 뵾쓽옄瑜 異붽턿븳 諛, 슜쓽옄쓽 踰뷀뻾떆媛꾩 9썡 23씪 삤쟾 10떆 30遺꾧꼍쑝濡 뙆븙릺뿀떎. 利, 쁺븘쑀湲 궗嫄댁뿉꽌뒗 8떆媛 젙룄쓽 삤李④ 諛쒖깮뻽떎.

蹂 뿰援щ뒗 슦由щ굹씪 떎젣 궡씤궗嫄댁뿉 踰뺤쓽븰쟻 궗썑寃쎄낵떆媛 異붿젙뿉 Moffatt 벑쓽 젙웾쟻 諛⑸쾿쓣 쟻슜븯뿬, 몢 궗嫄 紐⑤몢 遺뙣맂 떆떊씠뿀쓬뿉룄 遺덇뎄븯怨 궗썑寃쎄낵떆媛 異붿젙 삤李④ 2~8떆媛 젙룄硫 湲곗〈쓽 뿰援ъ뿉 鍮꾪빐 씪슱 젙룄쓽 쉷湲곗쟻씤 PMI 異붿젙媛믪씠씪 븷 닔 엳떎. 뵲씪꽌, 吏뒫솕 泥⑤떒솕 릺怨 엳뒗 媛뺣젰궗嫄 쁽옣뿉꽌 遺뙣떆떊씠 諛쒓껄맆 寃쎌슦, 궗嫄댄빐寃곗쓽 쑀슜븳 젙蹂대 솗蹂댄븯湲 쐞빐 궗썑寃쎄낵떆媛 異붿젙뿉 엳뼱 遺뙣吏닔(TBS) 늻쟻삩씪룄(ADD) 媛믪쓣 쟻슜븳떎硫 蹂대떎 쑀슜븳 PMI 媛믪쓣 궛異쒗븷 닔 엳쓣 寃껋쑝濡 궗猷뚮맂떎.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This research was supported by the Soonchunhyang University Research Fund and by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2017R1D1A1B03032960).

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The author has no conflict of interest.

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