Biomedical Science Letters

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Fig. 3. Signaling cascades of the macrophage-independent fibrosis in the alveolar tissue. (A) The activation of the EGFR downstream by asbestos fibers leads to the increase in the level of cytokines or chemokines for the full-scale inflammation. (B) ROS generated in alveolar cells or fibroblasts by asbestos fibers damage gDNA and mtDNA, resulting in their apoptotic cell death (Abbreviations: EGFR, epidermal growth factor receptor; MAPK, mitogen-activated protein kinase; NF-κB, nuclear factor-kappa B; AP-1, activator protein-1; mtDNA, mitochondrial DNA; ROS, reactive oxygen species; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor-α; IL, interleukin; MIP, macrophage inflammatory protein).
Biomed Sci Letters 2021;27:111-20
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