Biomedical Science Letters

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Fig. 4. Two pathways to the pulmonary fibrosis in the alveolus. (A) The reactive oxygen or nitrogen species that can be produced by asbestos-exposed epithelial cells trigger the cascade of the fibrosis with no involvement of macrophages. (B) Macrophages that fail to uptake the asbestos fibers release cytokines and ROS during their cell death. ROS and cytokines released from the two pathways damage the alveolar cells while these molecule activate neutrophils and macrophages to recruit them to the damaged sites. Some cytokines and growth factors stimulate the fibroblast in the interstitial space to enhance the synthesis of collagen fibers, resulting in abnormally thickening the extracellular matrix (Abbreviations: ROS, reactive oxygen species; TNF-α.tumor necrosis factor-α; IL, interleukin; TGF-β, transforming growth factor-α; FGF, fibroblast growth factor).
Biomed Sci Letters 2021;27:111-20 https://doi.org/10.15616/BSL.2021.27.3.111
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