Biomedical Science Letters

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Table. 2.

The hazard ratio of the development risk for metabolic syndrome over the 16-year follow-up

Variable Hazard ratio (95% confidence interval)
Non smoker (n = 1,431) Former smoker (n = 387) Current smoker (n = 510) P-value
Metabolic syndrome, n (%) 728 (50.9) 189 (48.8) 307 (60.2) <0.001
Unadjusted 1.00 0.96 (0.82~1.12) 1.29 (1.13~1.47)*** <0.001
Adjusted, Model 1 1.00 1.03 (0.83~1.27) 1.43 (1.19~1.73)*** <0.001
Adjusted, Model 2 1.00 1.04 (0.83~1.29) 1.57 (1.28~1.91)*** <0.001
High fasting glucose, n (%) 530 (37.0) 222 (57.4) 297 (58.2) <0.001
Unadjusted 1.00 1.87 (1.60~2.19)*** 1.86 (1.62~2.15)*** <0.001
Adjusted, Model 1 1.00 1.37 (1.11~1.69)** 1.39 (1.14~1.69)** 0.002
Adjusted, Model 2 1.00 1.36 (1.10~1.69)** 1.40 (1.14~1.70)** 0.004
Hypertension, n (%) 870 (60.8) 271 (70.0) 382 (74.9) <0.001
Unadjusted 1.00 1.28 (1.11~1.46)*** 1.35 (1.19~1.52)*** <0.001
Adjusted, Model 1 1.00 0.92 (0.77~1.10) 1.06 (0.90~1.25) 0.206
Adjusted, Model 2 1.00 0.86 (0.72~1.04) 1.00 (0.84~1.18) 0.151
Hypertriglyceridemia, n (%) 917 (64.1) 273 (70.5) 408 (80.0) <0.001
Unadjusted 1.00 1.33 (1.16~1.52)*** 1.67 (1.49~1.88)*** <0.001
Adjusted, Model 1 1.00 1.21 (1.01~1.45)* 1.53 (1.30~1.80)*** <0.001
Adjusted, Model 2 1.00 1.21 (1.01~1.46)* 1.60 (1.35~1.90)*** <0.001
Low HDL-cholesterol, n (%) 1197 (83.6) 262 (67.7) 385 (75.5) <0.001
Unadjusted 1.00 0.60 (0.53~0.69)*** 0.74 (0.66~0.83)*** <0.001
Adjusted, Model 1 1.00 1.01 (0.84~1.21) 1.21 (1.03~1.43)* 0.021
Adjusted, Model 2 1.00 1.05 (0.87~1.26) 1.30 (1.10~1.54)** 0.003
Abdominal obesity, n (%) 762 (53.2) 167 (43.2) 265 (52.0) 0.002
Unadjusted 1.00 0.74 (0.62~0.87)*** 0.92 (0.80~1.06) 0.002
Adjusted, Model 1 1.00 0.94 (0.75~1.17) 1.22 (0.99~1.48) 0.017
Adjusted, Model 2 1.00 0.92 (0.73~1.15) 1.32 (1.08~1.63)** <0.001

Abbreviation: BMI, body mass index; HDL, high density lipoprotein

Model 1: adjusted for age, sex

Model 2: adjusted for age, sex, BMI, physical activity, total energy, usual sleep duration, education level, marital status, monthly income, alcohol drinking

*P <0.05, **P <0.01, ***P <0.001

Biomed Sci Letters 2023;29:355-62 https://doi.org/10.15616/BSL.2023.29.4.355
© 2023 Biomed Sci Letters