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The Association of Pulse Pressure and Pre-Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Middle Aged Men
Biomed Sci Letters 2017;23:73-79
Published online June 30, 2017;  https://doi.org/10.15616/BSL.2017.23.2.73
© 2017 The Korean Society For Biomedical Laboratory Sciences.

Kyung-A Shin

Department of Clinical Laboratory Science, Shinsung University, Chungnam 31801, Korea
Correspondence to: Kyung-A Shin. Department of Clinical Laboratory Science, Shinsung University, 1 Daehak-Ro, Dangjin-Si, Chungnam 31801, Korea. Tel: +82-41-350-1408, Fax: +82-41-350-1355, e-mail: mobitz2@shinsung.ac.kr
Received March 12, 2017; Revised April 3, 2017; Accepted May 21, 2017.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
 Abstract

Pulse pressure is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between pulse pressure and metabolic syndrome in Korean men. The study subjects were 8,439 adults aged 40 to 64 years, who underwent health screening examination from January 2012 to December 2014 at the Health Promotion Center of one hospital in Gyeonggi-do for general health check-up. They include the metabolic syndrome absent group (Absent, n=3,078), the pre-metabolic syndrome group (Pre-MetS, n=4,242) and the metabolic syndrome group (MetS, n=1,119). Progressive increase in pulse pressure was demonstrated for increasing components of the metabolic syndrome (P<0.001). The pulse pressure according to the degree of the metabolic syndrome was higher in the pre-MetS and MetS groups compared to the Absent group (P<0.001). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride, fasting glucose, and abdominal obesity positively correlated with pulse pressure (P<0.001).

Keywords : Pulse pressure, Metabolic syndrome, Pre-Metabolic syndrome
꽌濡

留μ븬(pulse pressure, PP) 닔異뺢린 삁븬怨 씠셿湲 삁븬쓽 李⑥씠瑜 굹궡硫, 湲곗큹쟻씤 嫄닿컯룊媛瑜 쐞빐 돺寃 痢≪젙 媛뒫븳 吏몴씠떎(Kwon et al., 2017). 留μ븬씠 넂쓣닔濡 슱삁꽦 떖遺쟾씠굹 떖諛⑹꽭룞怨 媛숈 떖옣愿젴 吏덊솚쓣 룞諛섑븯寃 릺硫, 룞留κ꼍솕利앹쓽 몴吏옄濡 솢슜릺怨 엳떎(Chae et al., 1999; Haider et al., 2003; Cremer et al., 2015). 뵲씪꽌 넂 留μ븬 떖삁愿吏덊솚쓽 룆由쎌쟻씤 쐞뿕씤옄濡 씤떇맂떎 (Franklin et al., 1999).

궗利앺썑援곗 쟾꽭怨꾩쟻쑝濡 湲됱냽븳 利앷瑜 蹂댁씠怨 엳쑝硫, 蹂듬鍮꾨쭔, 삁븬 긽듅, 怨좏삁떦 諛 씠긽吏吏덊삁利앷낵 媛숈 떖삁愿吏덊솚 쐞뿕슂씤쓽 援곗쭛쁽긽쓣 듅吏뺤쑝濡 븳떎(Grundy et al., 2005). 궗利앺썑援곗 뿰졊씠 利앷븿뿉 뵲씪 利앷븯뒗 寃쏀뼢쓣 蹂댁씠硫(Hildrum et al., 2007), 슦由щ굹씪 2007뀈 援誘쇨굔媛뺤쁺뼇議곗궗뿉꽌룄 40 씠긽 以묐뀈痢듭쓽 궗利앺썑援 쑀蹂묐쪧 35.2%濡, 뿰졊 利앷 鍮꾨븯뿬 궗利앺썑援 쑀蹂묐쪧쓽 利앷瑜 蹂댁떎(Moon and Kong, 2010). 궗利앺썑援곌낵 궗利앺썑援 쐞뿕슂씤 룞留λ몢猿섏쓽 利앷 룞留κ꼍솕 諛 룞留 寃쎌쭅룄(arterial stiffness)瑜 珥됱쭊떆궎뒗 빑떖뿭븷쓣 븯뒗 寃껋쑝濡 븣젮졇 엳떎(Benetos et al., 1998; Scuteri et al., 2011). 궗利앺썑援곗 끂씤肉 븘땲씪 以묐뀈痢듭뿉꽌룄 以묒슂븳 嫄닿컯臾몄젣 以 븯굹씤뜲, 씠뒗 궗利앺썑援곗씠 吏꾪뻾릺뼱 떖삁愿吏덊솚쓣 쑀諛쒗븷 닔 엳湲 븣臾몄씠떎(Kwon et al., 2017). 留μ븬怨 궗利앺썑援곌컙쓽 뿰愿꽦뿉 빐꽌 怨좏삁븬 솚옄瑜 긽쑝濡 留μ븬쓽 利앷뒗 겙 룞留μ뿉 寃쏀솕媛 利앷븯쓬쓣 諛섏쁺븯硫, 궗利앺썑援곌낵 愿젴맂 떖삁愿 쐞뿕쓽 利앷瑜 꽕紐낇븯뒗뜲 湲곗뿬븷 닔 엳떎怨 蹂닿퀬맂떎(Mulè et al., 2007; Protogerou et al., 2007). 삉븳 Kwon 벑(2017) 븳援 끂씤쓣 긽쑝濡 궗利앺썑援 諛쒕퀝 利앷 留μ븬 뼇쓽 긽愿愿怨꾩뿉 엳쑝硫, 궗利앺썑援 쐞뿕슂씤씠 뾾뒗 援곕낫떎 궗利앺썑援 吏꾨떒援곗뿉꽌 留μ븬쓽 利앷媛 뜑 몢뱶윭吏먯쓣 蹂닿퀬븯떎. 留μ븬怨 궗利앺썑援곌컙쓽 愿젴꽦 씤뒓由 빆꽦怨 留뚯꽦 媛뺣룄 뿼利(chronic low grade inflammation)뿉 쓽빐 留ㅺ컻릺뒗 寃껋쑝濡 異붿륫맂떎(Kwon et al., 2017). 洹몃윭굹 씠윭븳 뿰援щ뱾 怨좏삁븬 솚옄굹 씪諛 끂씤뿉꽌 젣븳쟻쑝濡 留μ븬怨 궗利앺썑援곌컙쓽 뿰愿꽦쓣 룊媛븯怨 엳떎. 듅엳 留μ븬 끂씤뱾쓽 愿긽룞留 떖옣吏덊솚쓣 삁痢≫븯뒗 씤옄濡 젣떆릺怨좊뒗 엳쑝굹(Franklin et al., 1999), 蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗 븳援 以묐뀈궓꽦쓣 긽쑝濡 留μ븬怨 궗利앺썑援곌컙쓽 뿰愿꽦쓣 룊媛븯怨좎옄 븯떎. 삉븳 궗利앺썑援 쐞뿕슂씤씠 뾾뒗援곌낵 鍮꾧탳빐 궗利앺썑援 吏꾨떒援곌낵 궗利앺썑援곗쑝濡 吏꾪뻾릺뒗 쟾떒怨꾩씤 1~2媛쒖쓽 쐞뿕슂씤쓣 媛吏 궗利앺썑援 쟾떒怨꾧뎔뿉꽌쓽 留μ븬 李⑥씠瑜 븣븘蹂닿퀬옄 븯떎.

옱猷 諛 諛⑸쾿

뿰援 긽옄 諛 궗利앺썑援 吏꾨떒

蹂 뿰援 긽옄뒗 2012뀈 1썡遺꽣 2014뀈 12썡源뚯 寃쎄린吏뿭 J 醫낇빀蹂묒썝쓽 嫄닿컯寃吏꾩꽱꽣瑜 諛⑸Ц븯뿬 嫄닿컯寃吏꾩쓣 諛쏆 40꽭 씠긽 64꽭 씠븯쓽 以묐뀈궓꽦쓣 긽쑝濡 븯떎. 쟾泥 긽옄 珥 10,560紐 以 怨좏삁븬 빟젣瑜 蹂듭슜 以묒씤 궗엺怨 寃곗륫移섎 룷븿븯뒗 2,121紐낆쓣 젣쇅븳 理쒖쥌 뿰援 긽옄뒗 8,439紐낆씠뿀떎. 蹂듭슜븯뒗 빟臾쇱뿉 븳 議곗궗뒗 옄湲곌린엯떇 臾몄쭊몴瑜 넻빐 씠猷⑥뼱議뚯쑝硫, 蹂 뿰援щ뒗 寃쎄린吏뿭 J 醫낇빀蹂묒썝쓽 湲곌깮紐낆쑄由ъ쐞썝쉶 듅씤쓣 諛쏆븘 떆뻾릺뿀떎(IRB No: D-1206-010-5941). 궗利앺썑援 吏꾨떒 AHA/NHLBI (American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 2005)쓽 湲곗뿉 뵲씪 蹂듬鍮꾨쭔, 삁븬 긽듅, 삁떦 긽듅, 以묒꽦吏諛 긽듅, HDL-肄쒕젅뒪뀒濡 媛먯냼쓽 5媛吏 쐞뿕슂씤 以 3媛吏 씠긽 빐떦븯뒗 寃쎌슦 궗利앺썑援 吏꾨떒援(MetS; metabolic syndrome, n=1,119)쑝濡 뙋젙븯떎(Grundy et al., 2005). 삉븳 1~2媛쒖쓽 쐞뿕슂씤쓣 媛吏 궗利앺썑援 쟾떒怨꾧뎔(Pre-MetS; pre-metabolic syndrome, n=4,242), 궗利앺썑援 쐞뿕슂씤씠 뾾뒗 援(Absent, n=3,078)쑝濡 遺꾨쪟븯떎. 궗利앺썑援 吏꾨떒쓽 꽭遺 빆紐⑹쑝濡 삁븬 긽듅 닔異뺢린 삁븬 ≥130 mmHg 삉뒗 씠셿湲 삁븬 ≥85 mmHg씤 寃쎌슦, 삁떦 긽듅 怨듬났삁떦 ≥100 mg/dL씤 寃쎌슦떎. 以묒꽦吏諛 긽듅 삁以 以묒꽦吏諛 ≥150 mg/dL, HDL (high density lipoprotein)-肄쒕젅뒪뀒濡 媛먯냼뒗 삁以 HDL-肄쒕젅뒪뀒濡ㅼ씠 <40 mg="" dl="" aha="" nhlbi="" 102="" cm="" -="" asia-pacific="" criteria="" apc="" 90="" cm="" span="" class="xref">WHO, 2000).

떊泥닿퀎痢 諛 留μ븬痢≪젙

떊옣怨 泥댁쨷 DS-103M (Jenix, Seoul, Korea) 옄룞 떊泥닿퀎痢↔린瑜 씠슜븯뿬 痢≪젙븯쑝硫, 泥댁쭏웾吏닔(body mass index, BMI)뒗 紐몃Т寃(kg)/궎(m2)쓽 怨듭떇쑝濡 異붿젙븯떎. 뿀由щ몮젅뒗 뼇 諛쒖쓣 25~30cm 젙룄 踰뚮━怨 닲쓣 궡돭 긽깭뿉꽌 媛덈퉬堉 媛옣 븘옒쐞移섏 怨⑤컲쓽 媛옣 넂 쐞移섏쓽 以묎컙遺쐞瑜 痢≪젙븯쑝硫, 뿁뜦씠 몮젅뒗 뿁뜦씠쓽 媛옣 룎異쒕맂 遺遺꾩쓣 吏굹 닔룊씠 릺룄濡 븯뿬 以꾩옄濡 痢≪젙븯떎. 닔異뺢린 씠셿湲 삁븬 10遺 씠긽 븞젙쓣 痍⑦븳 썑 븠 옄꽭뿉꽌 닔 삁븬怨꾨줈 痢≪젙븯쑝硫, 2遺 씠긽 쑕떇 썑 2쉶 諛섎났 痢≪젙븯뿬 룊洹좉컪쓣 寃곌낵濡 궗슜븯떎. 삉븳 留μ븬 理쒓퀬 삁븬怨 理쒖 삁븬쓽 李⑥씠瑜 굹궡硫, 닔異뺢린 삁븬뿉꽌 씠셿湲 삁븬쓣 類 닔移섎줈 젙쓽븯떎(Kwon et al., 2017).

삁븸寃궗

삁븸寃궗뒗 8떆媛 씠긽 湲덉떇븳 썑 쟾二쇱젙留(antecubital vein)뿉꽌 梨꾪삁븯쑝硫, TBA-200FR NEO (Toshiba, Tokyo, Japan) 깮솕븰 옄룞遺꾩꽍湲곕줈 珥앹퐳젅뒪뀒濡, HDL-肄쒕젅뒪뀒濡, LDL-肄쒕젅뒪뀒濡, 以묒꽦吏諛, 怨듬났삁떦, 怨좉컧룄 C-諛섏쓳 떒諛깆쭏(high sensitivity C-reactive protein, hs-CRP), 슂궛쓣 痢≪젙븯떎. 떦솕삁깋냼(hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c)뒗 쟾삁寃泥대줈 Variant II (Bio Rad, CA, USA) 옣鍮꾨줈 쟾슜떆빟쓣 씠슜븯뿬, 怨좎꽦뒫븸泥댄겕濡쒕쭏넗洹몃옒뵾踰(high performance liquid chromatography, HPLC)쓽 썝由щ줈 痢≪젙븯떎. 씤뒓由곗 Modular Analytics E170 (Roche, Mannheim, Germany) 옣鍮꾨줈 쟾슜떆빟쓣 씠슜븯뿬, 쟾湲고솕븰諛쒓킅硫댁뿭遺꾩꽍踰(electrochemiluminescence immunoassay, ECLIA)쑝濡 寃궗븯떎. HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance) 씤뒓由 빆꽦쓣 룊媛븯뒗 吏몴濡, 怨듬났삁떦怨 씤뒓由 냽룄瑜 씠슜븯뿬 [怨듬났떆 씤뒓由(μIU/mL) × 怨듬났떆 삁떦(mg/dL)] / 405쓽 怨꾩궛떇쑝濡 궛異쒗븯떎(Moon et al., 2010).

옄猷뚯쿂由щ갑踰

蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌 넻怨꾪븰쟻 遺꾩꽍 SPSS Windows 21.0 (IBM, Armonk, USA) 넻怨 봽濡쒓렇옩쓣 씠슜븯쑝硫, 궗利앺썑援 쐞뿕슂씤씠 뾾뒗援, 궗利앺썑援 쟾떒怨꾧뎔, 궗利앺썑援 吏꾨떒援곌컙쓽 留μ븬 李⑥씠瑜 븣븘蹂닿린 쐞빐 씪썝蹂웾遺꾩꽍(one way ANOVA)쓣 떎떆븯쑝硫, 李⑥씠媛 엳뒗 寃쎌슦 궗썑寃젙 Scheffé 寃젙踰뺤쓣 쟻슜븯떎. 삉븳 吏묐떒媛 꽦蹂 諛 삁븬 긽듅, 삁떦 긽듅, 以묒꽦吏諛 긽듅, HDL-肄쒕젅뒪뀒濡 媛먯냼쓽 5媛吏 궗利앺썑援 쐞뿕슂씤 쑀蹂묐쪧쓽 李⑥씠瑜 븣븘蹂닿린 쐞빐 移댁씠젣怨 寃젙(chi-square test)쓣 떎떆븯떎. 궗利앺썑援 媛곴컖쓽 쐞뿕슂씤쓽 쑀臾댁뿉 뵲瑜 留μ븬 李⑥씠瑜 鍮꾧탳븯湲 쐞빐 룆由쏀몴蹂 t 寃젙(independent t-test)쓣 떆뻾븯쑝硫, 留μ븬怨 궗利앺썑援 쐞뿕슂씤媛꾩쓽 愿젴꽦쓣 뙆븙븯湲 쐞빐 Pearson쓽 긽愿遺꾩꽍쓣 떎떆븯떎. 蹂 뿰援ъ쓽 넻怨꾪븰쟻 쑀쓽닔以 P<0.05濡 꽕젙븯떎.

寃곌낵

궗利앺썑援 젙룄뿉 뵲瑜 긽옄쓽 쓽븰쟻 듅꽦 諛 留μ븬 李⑥씠

蹂 뿰援ъ뿉 李몄뿬븳 긽옄瑜 궗利앺썑援 쐞뿕슂씤씠 뾾뒗 援(Absent), 궗利앺썑援 쟾떒怨꾧뎔(Pre-MetS), 궗利앺썑援 吏꾨떒援(MetS)쑝濡 遺꾨쪟븯뿬 꽭 吏묐떒쓽 쓽븰쟻 듅꽦 諛 留μ븬쓽 李⑥씠瑜 鍮꾧탳븳 寃곌낵뒗 Table 1怨 媛숇떎. 뿰졊 吏묐떒媛 李⑥씠瑜 蹂댁쑝硫, Absent援곕낫떎 Pre-MetS援곌낵 MetS援곗쓽 뿰졊씠 넂븯쑝硫, Pre-MetS援곕낫떎 MetS援곗쓽 뿰졊씠 넂븯떎(P<0.001). 씤泥댁륫젙븰쟻 蹂씤 以 泥댁쨷, 泥댁쭏웾吏닔, 뿀由щ몮젅, 뿁뜦씠 몮젅뒗 Absent援곕낫떎 Pre-MetS援곌낵 MetS援곗뿉꽌 겕寃 굹궗쑝硫, Pre-MetS援곕낫떎 MetS援곗씠 겙 寃껋쑝濡 굹궗떎(媛곴컖 P<0.001). 떊옣 Absent援곌낵 Pre-MetS援곕낫떎 MetS援곗씠 겙 寃껋쑝濡 굹궗떎(P=0.002). 깮솕븰쟻 蹂씤 以 LDL-肄쒕젅뒪뀒濡, 以묒꽦吏諛, 怨듬났삁떦, HbA1c, 씤뒓由, HOMA-IR, 슂궛 Absent援곕낫떎 Pre-MetS援곌낵 MetS援곗뿉꽌 넂븯쑝硫, Pre-MetS援곕낫떎 MetS援곗씠 넂븯떎(媛곴컖 P<0.001). 洹몃윭굹 HDL-肄쒕젅뒪뀒濡ㅼ Absent援곕낫떎 Pre-MetS援곌낵 MetS援곗뿉꽌 궙븯쑝硫, Pre-MetS援곕낫떎 MetS援곗씠 궙븯떎(P<0.001). 珥앹퐳젅뒪뀒濡ㅼ Absent援곕낫떎 Pre-MetS援곌낵 MetS援곗씠 넂븯쑝硫(P<0.001), hs-CRP뒗 Absent援곌낵 Pre-MetS援곕낫떎 MetS援곗뿉꽌 넂븯떎(P=0.012). 삁뿭븰쟻 蹂씤쑝濡 닔異뺢린 씠셿湲 삁븬 Absent援곕낫떎 Pre-MetS援곌낵 MetS援곗뿉꽌 넂븯쑝硫, Pre-MetS援곕낫떎 MetS援곗뿉꽌 넂븯떎(媛곴컖 P<0.001). 삉븳 留μ븬 Absent援 (37.97±5.55)蹂대떎 Pre-MetS援(39.87±7.22)怨 MetS援(42.78±9.01)뿉꽌 넂븯쑝硫, Pre-MetS援곕낫떎뒗 MetS援곗씠 넂븯떎 (P<0.001) (Fig. 1). 꽭 吏묐떒媛 궗利앺썑援 쐞뿕슂씤蹂 쑀蹂묐쪧쓽 鍮덈룄뒗 Absent援곗뿉꽌 MetS援곗쑝濡 吏꾪뻾븷닔濡 젏利앹쟻쑝濡 넂 鍮덈룄瑜 蹂댁떎(媛곴컖 P<0.001).

Clinical and biochemical characteristics according to the metabolic syndrome status

  Variable Absent (N=3,078) Pre-MetS (N=4,242) MetS (N=1,119) P-value
Age (yr) 48.30±6.24 49.10±6.42* 50.04±6.72* <0.001
Height (cm) 170.41±5.87 170.57±5.88 171.14±6.05* 0.002
Weight (kg) 67.77±7.57 73.00±8.90* 80.38±10.20* <0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 23.41±4.69 25.20±6.18* 27.41±2.85* <0.001
Waist circumference (cm) 79.97±5.53 85.07±6.53* 91.89±6.80* <0.001
Hip circumference (cm) 92.56±4.36 95.23±4.98* 98.86±5.59* <0.001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 107.43±9.21 114.77±13.24* 123.67±14.79* <0.001
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 69.23±7.60 74.60±10.13* 80.91±10.73* <0.001
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 191.97±30.76 201.06±34.96* 200.65±36.53* <0.001
HDL-cholesterol (mg/dL) 56.89±11.14 50.10±11.26* 44.38±10.42* <0.001
LDL-cholesterol (mg/dL) 120.13±28.31 126.74±31.31* 123.22±33.12* <0.001
Triglyceride (mg/dL) 91.41±30.00 167.92±96.77* 240.51±111.08* <0.001
Fasting glucose (mg/dL) 85.56±7.35 96.17±22.31* 112.85±32.70* <0.001
hs-CRP (mg/dL) 0.15±0.57 0.17±0.43 0.20±0.50* 0.012
HbA1c (%) 5.45±0.31 5.77±0.84* 6.30±1.17* <0.001
Insulin (μυ/mL) 3.43±2.00 5.30±2.61* 7.47±3.58* <0.001
HOMA-IR 0.13±0.34 0.27±0.62* 0.46±1.01* <0.001
Uric acid (mg/dL) 5.75±1.15 6.04±1.26* 6.23±1.42* <0.001

Metabolic syndrome components
  High blood pressure§ 0 987 (23.3) 623 (55.7) <0.001
  Low HDL-cholesterol§ 0 637 (15.0) 489 (43.7) <0.001
  High fasting glucose§ 0 1,102 (26.0) 736 (65.8) <0.001
  Abdominal obesity§ 0 996 (23.5) 803 (71.8) <0.001
  High triglyceride§ 0 2,191 (51.7) 996 (89.0) <0.001

Calculated by one way ANOVA and scheffé test.

Values are presented as mean ± SD.

Calculated by χ2-test. Data are presented as number (%).

Abbreviations: MetS, metabolic syndrome; BMI, body mass index; HDL, high density lipoprotein; LDL, low density lipoprotein; hs-CRP, high sensitivity C-reactive protein; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c.

Significantly different from Normal at P<0.05,

Significantly different from Pre-MetS at P<0.05.


Fig. 1.

Mean pulse pressure level according to the metabolic syndrome status. The Pre-MetS and MetS increase significantly by the pulse pressure level at P<0.001. absent="" 37="" 97="" 5="" 55="" pre-mets="" 39="" 87="" 7="" 22="" mets="" 42="" 78="" 9="" 01="" abbreviations:="" mets="" metabolic="" syndrome="" p="">



궗利앺썑援 쐞뿕슂씤 援곗쭛꽦뿉 뵲瑜 留μ븬 李⑥씠

궗利앺썑援 쐞뿕슂씤쓽 씠긽 냼寃 닔뿉 뵲瑜 留μ븬쓽 룊洹좎쓣 鍮꾧탳빐 蹂 寃곌낵, 궗利앺썑援 쐞뿕슂씤쓽 씠긽 냼寃 닽옄媛 利앷븷닔濡 留μ븬씠 쑀쓽븯寃 利앷븯뒗 寃쏀뼢쓣 蹂댁떎(P<0.001). 삉븳 궗利앺썑援 쑀臾댁뿉 뵲瑜 留μ븬쓽 李⑥씠瑜 鍮꾧탳븳 寃곌낵 젙긽援(39.07±6.64)蹂대떎 궗利앺썑援 吏꾨떒援(42.78±9.01)쓽 留μ븬씠 넂븯떎(P<0.001) (Table 2).

Prevalence of patients and pulse pressure according to the increasing number of metabolic syndrome risk factors

Number of metabolic syndrome risk factors Number of case (%) (n=8,439) Pulse pressure P-value
0 3,078 (36.5) 37.97±5.55 <0.001
1 2,571 (30.5) 39.30±6.74
2 1,671 (19.8) 40.74±7.83
3 850 (10.1) 42.54±8.93
4 248 (2.9) 43.57±9.26
5 21 (0.2) 43.09±9.54

Normal 7,320 (86.7) 39.07±6.64 <0.001
MetS 1,119 (11.3) 42.78±9.01

Calculated by Independent t-test and one way ANOVA.

Values are presented as mean ± SD.

Abbreviations: MetS, metabolic syndrome.



留μ븬怨 궗利앺썑援 쐞뿕슂씤媛꾩쓽 愿젴꽦

留μ븬怨 궗利앺썑援 쐞뿕슂씤媛꾩쓽 긽愿愿怨꾨 굹궦 寃곌낵, 닔異뺢린(r=0.655, P<0.001) 씠셿湲 삁븬(r=0.156, P<0.001), 珥앹퐳젅뒪뀒濡(r=0.040, P<0.001), 以묒꽦吏諛(r=0.064, P<0.001), 怨듬났삁떦(r=0.099, P<0.001), 蹂듬鍮꾨쭔(r=0.112, P<0.001) 留μ븬怨 뼇쓽 긽愿愿怨꾨 蹂댁쑝硫, 씠 以 닔異뺢린 삁븬씠 媛옣 넂 긽愿愿怨꾨 蹂댁떎(Table 3).

궗利앺썑援 媛곴컖쓽 쐞뿕슂씤 쑀臾댁뿉 뵲瑜 留μ븬 李⑥씠

궗利앺썑援 媛곴컖쓽 쐞뿕슂씤 쑀臾댁뿉 뵲瑜 留μ븬쓽 룊洹좎쓣 鍮꾧탳빐蹂 寃곌낵, 쐞뿕슂씤씠 뾾뒗 援곕낫떎 蹂듬鍮꾨쭔, 넂 삁븬, 넂 삁떦, 怨좎쨷꽦吏諛⑺삁利앹쓽 쐞뿕슂씤씠 엳뒗 寃쎌슦 留μ븬씠 넂寃 굹궗떎(媛곴컖 P<0.001). 洹몃윭굹 HDL-肄쒕젅뒪뀒濡ㅼ쬆쓽 쐞뿕슂씤씠 엳뒗 寃쎌슦뒗 吏묐떒媛 留μ븬뿉 李⑥씠媛 뾾뿀떎(Table 4).

Correlation between pulse pressure level and metabolic syndrome risk factors

Metabolic syndrome risk factors Pulse pressure

r P-value
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 0.655 <0.001
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 0.156 <0.001
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 0.040 <0.001
HDL-cholesterol (mg/dL) 0.018 0.095
LDL-cholesterol (mg/dL) 0.017 0.111
Triglyceride (mg/dL) 0.064 <0.001
Fasting glucose (mg/dL) 0.099 <0.001
Abdominal obesity 0.112 <0.001

Calculated by Pearson correlation coefficient.

Abbreviations: HDL, high density lipoprotein; LDL, low density lipoprotein.


Pulse pressure levels with/without each metabolic syndrome risk factors

Metabolic syndrome risk factors With metabolic syndrome risk factor Without metabolic syndrome risk factor P-value
Abdominal obesity 40.54±7.71 (n=1,799) 39.30±6.91 (n=6,640) <0.001
High blood pressure 45.24±9.74 (n=1,610) 38.22±5.54 (n=6,829) <0.001
High blood glucose 41.22±7.96 (n=1,838) 39.10±6.78 (n=6,601) <0.001
High triglyceride 40.01±7.33 (n=3,187) 39.29±6.96 (n=5,252) <0.001
Low HDL-cholesterol 39.41±7.11 (n=1,126) 39.59±7.11 (n=7,313) 0.431

Calculated by independent t-test.

Values are presented as mean ± SD.

Abbreviations: HDL, high density lipoprotein; LDL, low density lipoprotein.


怨좎같

蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗 븳援 以묐뀈궓꽦뿉꽌 留μ븬怨 궗利앺썑援곌컙뿉 愿젴씠 엳뒗吏瑜 議곗궗븯떎. 洹 寃곌낵 궗利앺썑援 쐞뿕슂씤씠 利앷븷닔濡 鍮꾨븯뿬 留μ븬쓽 利앷瑜 蹂댁쑝硫, 궗利앺썑援 吏꾨떒援 肉먮쭔 븘땲씪 궗利앺썑援곗쑝濡 吏꾪뻾릺뒗 쟾떒怨꾧뎔뿉꽌룄 留μ븬쓽 利앷瑜 蹂댁떎. 삉븳 궗利앺썑援 쐞뿕슂씤 以 닔異뺢린 씠셿湲 삁븬, 珥앹퐳젅뒪뀒濡, 以묒꽦吏諛, 怨듬났삁떦, 蹂듬鍮꾨쭔 留μ븬怨 뼇쓽 긽愿愿怨꾨 蹂댁떎.

湲곕낯쟻씤 嫄닿컯룊媛瑜 쐞빐 돺寃 痢≪젙 媛뒫븳 留μ븬 깮由ы븰쟻쑝濡 醫뚯떖떎 援ы삁瑜(ventricular ejection), 룞留 寃쎌쭅룄, 諛섏궗뙆(wave reflection) 媛숈 삁뿭븰쟻 슂씤쑝濡 援ъ꽦릺湲 븣臾몄뿉 룞留 寃쎌쭅룄媛 利앷븷닔濡 留μ븬씠 利앷븯뒗 寃쏀뼢쓣 蹂댁뿬, 룞留κ꼍솕 諛 二쎌긽寃쏀솕利앹쓽 吏몴濡 솢슜맂떎(Benetos et al., 1998; Lee, 2002; Kwon et al., 2017). 씠윭븳 留μ븬 寃쎈룞留 몢猿(carotid intima-media thickness), 寃쎈룞留 寃쏀솕利, 醫뚯떖떎 鍮꾨 愿젴씠 엳쑝硫, 뇤議몄쨷, 떖洹쇨꼍깋, 떖遺쟾 벑 떖삁愿怨꾩쭏솚쓽 媛꾩젒쟻 삁痢≪씤옄濡 븣젮졇 엳떎(Pannier et al., 1989; Finkel and Holbrook, 2000; Choi, 2015). 삉븳 留μ븬 삁愿쓽 끂솕瑜 諛섏쁺븯뒗 吏몴濡 젣떆릺뒗뜲, 嫄닿컯븳 삁愿 깂젰씠 엳뼱 닔異뺢린 씠셿湲 삁븬쓣 쟻젅엳 議곗젅븯吏留 굹씠媛 뱾뼱媛먯뿉 뵲씪 삁愿 깂젰쓣 엪怨 寃쎌쭅릺硫댁꽌 닔異뺢린 삁븬 긽듅븯怨 씠셿湲 삁븬 븯릺뼱 寃곌뎅 留μ븬씠 긽듅븯寃 맂떎(Franklin et al., 1999; Gasowski et al., 2002).

씠 愿젴맂 Franklin 벑(1999)쓽 뿰援ъ뿉 쓽븯硫 留μ븬씠 10 mmHg 긽듅븯硫 愿긽룞留μ쭏솚씠 22% 利앷븯硫, 留μ븬씠 넂쓣닔濡 궗留앸쪧룄 利앷븳떎怨 蹂닿퀬븯떎. 삉븳 怨좏삁븬 쟾떒怨꾩뿉꽌 留μ븬씠 20 mmHg 씠긽 긽듅븯硫 怨좏삁븬쑝濡 吏꾪뻾븷 쐞뿕씠 9諛 씠긽씤 寃껋쑝濡 蹂닿퀬맂떎(Kim et al., 2008). 理쒓렐 뿰援ъ뿉꽌 Kwon 벑(2017) 슦由щ굹씪 援誘쇨굔媛뺤쁺뼇議곗궗 옄猷뚮 씠슜븯뿬 끂씤뿉꽌 留μ븬怨 궗利앺썑援곌컙뿉 뼇쓽 긽愿愿怨꾧 엳쓬쓣 蹂닿퀬븯떎.

蹂 뿰援ш껐怨 留μ븬 궗利앺썑援 쐞뿕슂씤쓽 씠긽 냼寃 닽옄媛 利앷븷닔濡 鍮꾨븯뿬 利앷븯硫, 궗利앺썑援 吏꾨떒援곌낵 뜑遺덉뼱 궗利앺썑援 쟾떒怨꾧뎔뿉꽌룄 利앷瑜 蹂댁떎. 씠 媛숈 寃곌낵뒗 궗利앺썑援곗쑝濡 吏꾪뻾븯湲 쟾떒怨꾩뿉꽌룄 議곌린 吏꾨떒怨 깮솢뒿愿쓽 媛쒖꽑씠 슂援щ맖쓣 쓽誘명븯뒗 寃곌낵씠떎. 留μ븬 60 씠긽 끂뀈痢듭뿉꽌 떖삁愿吏덊솚쓽 씠솚쑉怨 궗留앸쪧쓽 삁痢≪씤옄濡 洹 以묒슂꽦씠 媛뺤“릺吏留, 蹂 뿰援ш껐怨쇰 넻빐 以묐뀈궓꽦뿉꽌룄 삁愿 寃쎌쭅룄쓽 媛꾩젒 吏몴씤 留μ븬쓽 以묒슂꽦쓣 媛꾧낵빐꽌뒗 븞맆 寃껋씠떎. Protogerou 벑(2007) 怨좏삁븬 솚옄瑜 긽쑝濡 젙긽援곕낫떎 궗利앺썑援 吏꾨떒援곗뿉꽌 留μ븬쓽 利앷媛 뜑 몢뱶윭吏寃 굹궓쓣 蹂닿퀬븯쑝硫, Mulè 벑(2007)룄 鍮-떦눊꽦 怨좏삁븬 솚옄瑜 긽쑝濡 궗利앺썑援곌낵 留μ븬媛꾩뿉 뼇쓽 긽愿愿怨꾧 엳쓬쓣 蹂닿퀬븯떎. 洹몃윭굹 씠윭븳 뿰援щ뒗 怨좏삁븬 솚옄뿉꽌 젣븳쟻쑝濡 떆뻾릺뿀怨 뿰졊 遺꾪룷룄 떎뼇븯뿬, 嫄닿컯븳 以묐뀈궓꽦뿉꽌쓽 留μ븬怨 궗利앺썑援곗쓣 룊媛븯吏 紐삵뻽떎. 삉 떎瑜 뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗 뿰졊怨 룊洹 룞留ν삁븬쓣 蹂댁젙븳 썑뿉뒗 留μ븬怨 궗利앺썑援 援ъ꽦슂냼媛꾩뿉 愿젴꽦씠 뾾쓬쓣 蹂닿퀬븯떎 (Mannucci et al., 2007).

留μ븬怨 궗利앺썑援곌컙쓽 愿젴꽦 씤뒓由 빆꽦怨 留뚯꽦 媛뺣룄 뿼利앹긽깭뿉 쓽빐 留ㅺ컻릺뒗 寃껋쑝濡 異붿륫맂떎 (Kwon et al., 2017). 듅엳 궗利앺썑援 諛 洹 쐞뿕슂씤뱾 삁愿끂솕瑜 珥됱쭊떆궎怨 긽샇옉슜뿉 쓽빐 룞留κ꼍솕瑜 쑀諛쒗븯뒗 寃껋쑝濡 븣젮졇 엳떎(Scuteri et al., 2004; Kwon et al., 2017). 굹씠媛 뱾뼱媛먯뿉 뵲씪 겙 룞留μ쓽 肄쒕씪寃먯 쁽븯寃 利앷릺怨 뿕씪뒪떞 꽟쑀뒗 뙆뿴릺뼱 삁愿踰쎌씠 뜑 寃쏀솕맂떎(Wagenseil and Mecham, 2012). 끂솕뿉 뵲瑜 룞留 뙺李쎌꽦(distensibility)쓽 媛먯냼肉먮쭔 븘땲씪 궗利앺썑援곗뿉 쓽빐 굹굹뒗 씤뒓由 빆꽦 룞留λ꼍쓽 援ъ“쟻 · 湲곕뒫쟻 蹂솕瑜 珥됱쭊븯뿬 留μ븬쓽 利앷瑜 쑀룄븳떎(Kwon et al., 2017). 삉븳 궗利앺썑援곗뿉꽌 援먭컧떊寃쎄퀎쓽 솢꽦솕뒗 떖諛뺤닔, 醫뚯떖떎 닔異뺣젰 諛 쟾떊 삁愿 빆뿉 쁺뼢쓣 二쇱뼱 룞留 뙺李쎌꽦쓣 븙솕떆궓떎(Hall et al., 2001). 諛섎㈃, 留뚯꽦 媛뺣룄 뿼利 긽깭뒗 留μ븬怨 궗利앺썑援곌컙쓽 愿怨꾨 留ㅺ컻븯뒗뜲, 洹 썝씤쑝濡 궗利앺썑援곗 吏諛⑹“吏곸뿉꽌 諛⑹텧븯뒗 移쒖뿼利앹꽦 궗씠넗移댁씤쓽 利앷瑜 쑀룄븯뿬 뿼利 諛쒗쁽쓣 쑀諛쒗븯湲 븣臾몄씠떎(Cooke et al., 2016). 씠뒗 삁愿궡뵾湲곕뒫 옣븷瑜 씪쑝궎怨 룞留 깂꽦쓣 蹂솕떆耳 룞留κ꼍솕 諛 留μ븬쓽 利앷濡 씠뼱吏 닔 엳떎(Kwon et al., 2017).

蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗 닔異뺢린 씠셿湲 삁븬, 珥앹퐳젅뒪뀒濡, 以묒꽦吏諛, 怨듬났삁떦, 蹂듬鍮꾨쭔씠 留μ븬怨 뼇쓽 긽愿愿怨꾨 蹂댁쑝硫, 蹂듬鍮꾨쭔, 넂 삁븬, 넂 삁떦怨 怨좎쨷꽦吏諛⑺삁利앹쓽 쐞뿕슂씤씠 엳뒗 寃쎌슦 쐞뿕슂씤씠 뾾뒗援곕낫떎 留μ븬씠 넂븯떎. 씠긽吏吏덊삁利앷낵 怨듬났삁떦 留μ븬쓣 利앷떆耳 삁愿 寃쎌쭅룄뿉 쁺뼢쓣 以 닔 엳뒗 쐞뿕씤옄濡 蹂닿퀬릺硫 (Chae et al., 1999; Park et al., 2012), 떦눊, 怨좏삁븬, 怨좎삁利앹 룞留 寃쎌쭅룄瑜 利앷떆궎뒗 寃껋쑝濡 蹂닿퀬맂떎(Li et al., 2011). 뵲씪꽌 怨좎삁利앹씠굹 떦눊 벑 궗利앺썑援 쐞뿕슂씤뿉 븳 쟻洹뱀쟻씤 移섎즺媛 븘슂븯寃좊떎.

蹂 뿰援щ뒗 寃쎄린吏뿭 씪媛 醫낇빀蹂묒썝뿉꽌 嫄닿컯寃吏꾩쓣 떎떆븳 以묐뀈궓꽦쓣 긽쑝濡 븯뿬 吏뿭쟻, 뿰졊, 꽦蹂꾩뿉 븳 솗빐꽍뿉 젣븳씠 엳떎. 삉븳 슒떒硫 뿰援щ줈 寃곌낵빐꽍뿉 엳뼱꽌 씤怨쇨怨꾨 諛앺옄 닔 뾾쑝硫, 뼢썑 쟾뼢쟻 뿰援ш 슂援щ맂떎. 룞留κ꼍솕瑜 吏곸젒쟻쑝濡 痢≪젙븯뒗 留ν뙆쟾떖냽룄(pulse wave velocity, PWV) 寃쎈룞留κ낵쓽 룊媛媛 씠猷⑥뼱吏吏 븡븯쑝硫, 삁븬뿉 쁺뼢쓣 以 닔 엳뒗 뿼遺꾩꽠痍⑤굹 슫룞 쑀臾대 룊媛븯吏 紐삵븳 젣븳젏씠 엳떎. 씠윭븳 븳怨꾩뿉룄 遺덇뎄븯怨 蹂 뿰援ш껐怨 끂씤肉 븘땲씪 以묐뀈궓꽦뿉꽌룄 留μ븬 궗利앺썑援 쐞뿕슂씤怨 愿젴씠 엳뒗 寃껋쑝濡 굹궗쑝硫, 궗利앺썑援곗쑝濡 吏꾨떒릺吏뒗 븡吏留 1~2媛쒖쓽 쐞뿕슂씤쓣 媛吏 궗利앺썑援 쟾떒怨꾧뎔뿉꽌룄 留μ븬쓽 利앷瑜 蹂댁뿬 궗利앺썑援곗쑝濡 吏꾪뻾맆 媛뒫꽦씠 넂 떒怨꾨줈 삁諛⑹쓣 쐞븳 議곌린 吏꾨떒쓽 以묒슂꽦씠 媛뺤“맂떎.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.

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