Search for


TEXT SIZE

search for



CrossRef (0)
Relation of Handwashing and Isolate of Bacteria from Mobile Phones of Healthcare Workers in a University Hospital
Biomed Sci Letters 2021;27:310-316
Published online December 31, 2021;  https://doi.org/10.15616/BSL.2021.27.4.310
© 2021 The Korean Society For Biomedical Laboratory Sciences.

Min-Gyu Choi1,*, Sang-Ha Kim2,*, Kyu-Ri Park3,*, Young-Kwon Kim4,*, Jungho Kim5,†,* and Young-Bin Yu6,†,*

1Department of Laboratory Medicine, Yeouido ST. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University, Seoul 07345, Korea
2Department of Laboratory Medicine, Konyang University Hospital, Daejeon 33365, Korea
3Korea Association of Health Promotion, Kyeryong-ro, Seo-gu, Daejeon 35264, Korea
4Department of Health Sciences, The Graduate School of Konyang University, Daejeon 33365, Korea
5Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Catholic University of Pusan, Busan 46252, Korea
6Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, College of Medical Sciences, Konyang University, Daejeon 33365, Korea
Correspondence to: *Professor.
Corresponding author: Jungho Kim. Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Catholic University of Pusan, Busan 46252, Korea.
Tel: +82-10-6792-0073, Fax: +82-51-510-0568, e-mail: jutosa70@cup.ac.kr
Corresponding author: Young-Bin Yu. Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, College of Medical Sciences, Konyang University, Daejeon 33365, Korea.
Tel: +82-10-4544-3126, Fax: +82-42-600-8435, e-mail: ybyoo@konyang.ac.kr
Received November 22, 2021; Revised December 2, 2021; Accepted December 3, 2021.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
 Abstract
Mobile phones used by healthcare workers are not only an indicator of the contamination of healthcare associated bacteria, but can also be another source of infection. The number and time of handwashing, mobile phone operation time and disinfection were highly relation with the bacterial contamination on the surface of mobile phone. Healthcare associated bacteria isolated from the mobile phone surface were 28 MRCoNS (48.3%), 14 S. aureus (24.2%), 3 MRSA (5.2%), 5 A. baumannii (8.6%), 3 MRAB (5.2%), 3 Entrococcus spp. (5.1%), 2 Pantoea spp. (3.4%), 2 A. lowffii (3.4%), 1 E. cloacae (1.7%), 1 P. stutzeri (1.7%), and P. mirabillis (1.7%). For isolation according to department, 2 MRAB from the emergency room and 1 MRSA from intensive unit, the radiology team and the rehabilitation medical team, respectively were isolated. As a result of the relation of isolates from the department of patient contact (ER, RT, GW, CP, ICU, RMT), the bacterial isolation rate was 75% and the department of patient non-contact (MRT) was 10%.
Keywords : Handwashing, Healthcare workers, Infection control, Mobile phone, Patient contact
꽌 濡

理쒓렐쓽 쓽猷 솚寃쎌뿉꽌 쑕룿 蹂묒썝뿉꽌 洹쇰Т븯뒗 쓽猷뚯쥌궗옄뿉寃뚮뒗 씪긽쟻씤 뿰씫 肉먮쭔 븘땲씪 쓽猷뚯젙蹂댁쓽 쟾떖 벑 쓽猷 뻾쐞쓽 닔떒쑝濡 궗슜릺뒗 븘닔쟻씤 옣鍮꾩씠怨 솚옄쓽 吏꾨즺굹 씪긽쟻씤 뾽臾대 븷 븣 쓽猷뚯쭊쓽 넀怨 옄二 젒珥됲븯寃 맂떎(Kim et al., 2010). 씤꽣꽬怨 鍮 뜲씠꽣, 젙蹂 怨듭쑀 肉 留 븘땲씪, IT 쑕 湲곌린뱾쓣 留덉튂 옣떊援ъ쿂읆 紐몄뿉 李⑹슜븷 닔 엳뒗(wearable device) 떒怨꾧퉴吏 삤寃 맖뿉 뵲씪 媛먯뿼愿由 뾽臾댁뿉 엳뼱꽌룄 떎뼇븯寃 諛섏쁺맆 궇씠 硫吏 븡븯떎(Yoo, 2016). 蹂묒썝 洹쇰Т옄뱾씠 궗슜븯怨 엳뒗 쑕룿 쓽猷뚭젴 媛먯뿼洹좎쓽 삤뿼쓣 굹궡뒗 븯굹쓽 吏몴씪 肉먮쭔 븘땲씪 쓽猷뚭젴 媛먯뿼洹좎쓽 삉 떎瑜 媛먯뿼썝씠 맆 닔 엳떎. 쑕룿쓽 궗슜 諛 쑕뒗 씪諛섏쟻쑝濡 넀씠굹 二쇰㉧땲, 媛諛 벑쓽 쑕 솚寃쎌쓣 넻빐 쓽猷뚭젴 媛먯뿼洹좎쓣 쟾뙆븷 닔 엳떎. 떎젣濡 쓽猷뚭젴 媛먯뿼洹좎 蹂묒썝 洹쇰Т옄뱾怨 솚옄쓽 吏곸젒쟻씤 젒珥됱쑝濡 蹂묒썝 洹쇰Т옄뱾쓽 삤뿼맂 넀쓣 넻빐 媛먯뿼릺湲곕룄 븯吏留 삤뿼맂 蹂묒썝 솚寃쎌씠굹 湲곌뎄瑜 넻빐 蹂묒썝 洹쇰Т옄뱾쓽 넀씠 삤뿼릺뼱 媛먯뿼릺湲곕룄 븳떎(Otter et al., 2011). 뜑슧씠 理쒓렐뿉뒗 뿬윭 怨꾩뿴쓽 빆洹좎젣뿉 궡꽦쓣 媛吏뒗 移대컮럹꽩 궡꽦 옣궡 꽭洹(carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, CRE), 떎젣궡꽦 끃냽洹(multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa), 떎젣궡꽦 븘떆꽕넗諛뺥꽣(multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter), 硫뷀떚떎由 궡꽦 솴깋룷룄븣洹(methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA), 諛섏퐫留덉씠떊 궡꽦 솴깋룷룄븣洹(vancomycin -resistant Staphylcoccus aureus, VRSA), 諛섏퐫留덉씠떊 궡꽦 옣븣洹(vancomycin-resistant Enterococi, VRE) 벑쓽 떎젣 궡꽦洹(multidrug-resistant organisms)뿉 쓽븳 쓽猷뚭젴 媛먯뿼씠 뒛뼱굹怨 엳떎(CDC, 2013)뒗 젏뿉꽌 쓽猷뚭젴 媛먯뿼洹좎쓽 삉 떎瑜 媛먯뿼썝씠 맆 닔 엳뒗 쑕룿뿉 븳 뿰援ъ 愿由ш 븘슂븯떎. 利, 蹂묒썝 궡 쓽猷뚭젴 媛먯뿼洹좎쑝濡 옄二 遺꾨━릺뒗 꽭洹좎씠굹 궡꽦洹좎씠 썝궡 솚寃쎌쓣 삤뿼떆궎뒗 寃쎌슦 媛꾩젒쟻씤 媛먯뿼씠 媛뒫븯떎뒗 젏뿉꽌 蹂묒썝 궡 솚寃쎌뿉꽌 쓽猷뚭젴 媛먯뿼 꽭洹좎쓽 삤뿼쓣 뙆븙븯怨 씠瑜 以꾩씠젮뒗 끂젰씠 븘슂븯떎(Siegel et al., 2007). 蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗 쓽猷뚯쥌궗옄뱾쓽 쑕룿 몴硫댁뿉 쓽猷뚭젴 媛먯뿼洹좎쓽 삤뿼쓣 솗씤븳 썑 쑕룿 몴硫댁쓽 쓽猷뚭젴 媛먯뿼洹좎쓽 삤뿼뿉 쁺뼢쓣 誘몄튂뒗 슂씤쓣 遺꾩꽍븯怨 굹븘媛 넀 뵽湲곌 쑕룿 몴硫댁쓽 쓽猷뚭젴 媛먯뿼洹좎쓽 삤뿼뿉 쁺뼢쓣 誘몄튂뒗 以묒슂븳 썝씤 以 븯굹 씪 寃 씠씪뒗 媛꽕쓣 꽭슦怨 넀 뵽湲곗뿉 쁺뼢쓣 誘몄튂뒗 슂씤쓣 븿猿 遺꾩꽍븿쑝濡쒖뜥 媛먯뿼愿由 梨낆쓣 꽭슦뒗뜲 븘슂븳 湲곕낯 옄猷뚮 젣怨듯븯怨좎옄 븯떎.

옱猷 諛 諛⑸쾿

옱猷

꽌슱쓽 븳 븰蹂묒썝뿉꽌 솚옄 鍮꾩젒珥 遺꽌씤 쓽臾닿린濡앺怨 젒珥 遺꽌씤 쓳湲됱떎, 쁺긽쓽븰, 씪諛 蹂묐룞, 吏꾨떒寃궗쓽븰, 以묓솚옄떎, 옱솢쓽븰, 媛꾪샇蹂댁“ 遺꽌뿉꽌 媛 遺꽌 떦 10紐낆쓽 洹쇰Т옄뱾怨 洹몃뱾쓽 쑕룿 80媛쒕 긽쑝濡 꽕臾몄“궗 꽭洹 諛곗뼇쓣 븯떎.

쓽猷뚭젴 媛먯뿼洹좎쓽 꽑젙

蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗 吏덈퀝愿由ъ껌뿉꽌 몴蹂멸컧떆(surveillance) 긽 踰뺤젙媛먯뿼蹂묒쑝濡 벑옱맂 6醫낆쓽 쓽猷뚭젴 媛먯뿼洹좉낵 媛먯뿼愿由ы븰쉶뿉꽌 옞옱쟻 蹂묒썝꽦 꽭洹좎쑝濡 遺꾨━븯怨 엳뒗 꽭洹좊뱾쓣 쑕룿뿉꽌 遺꾨━븯怨좎옄 븘옒 媛숈씠 꽑젙븯떎. 洹몃엺뼇꽦븣洹(Gram positive cocci, GPC): Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), Enterococcus spp., vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococci (MRCoNS), Streptococcus group A, Streptococcus group B. 洹몃엺쓬꽦 留됰洹(Gram negative bacilli): Acinetobacter baumanii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacteriaceae. 쑕룿 몴硫댁뿉꽌 寃異쒕맂 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), Micrococcus spp., Bacillus spp., Diphtheroid, viridans Streptococci 벑 蹂묒썝꽦씠 궙怨 솚寃쎌뿉 留롮씠 遺꾪룷븯湲 븣臾몄뿉 쑕룿 몴硫댁쓽 삤뿼 젙룄瑜 굹궡뒗 쓽猷뚭젴 媛먯뿼洹좎뿉꽌 젣쇅븯떎.

쑕쟾솕뿉꽌 꽭洹좎쓽 遺꾨━諛곗뼇

蹂묒썝 궡 媛 遺꽌 떦 10紐낆뿉寃 IRB뿉꽌 듅씤맂 뿰援ш퀎쉷꽌瑜 꽕紐낇븳 썑 꽕臾몄瑜 옉꽦븯뒗 룞븞 꽕臾 긽옄 쑕룿쓣 諛쏆븘 깮由ъ떇뿼닔瑜 臾삵엺 냼룆맂 硫대큺쑝濡 洹쇰Т옄뱾씠 옄二 궗슜븯뒗 쑕룿쓽 븸젙怨 옄뙋 洹몃━怨 쑕룿 뮮硫댁쓣 룄留먰븯뿬 꽭洹 諛곗뼇 寃궗瑜 쐞빐 삁븸슦臾대같吏(blood agar plate, BAP) MacConkey agar瑜 궗슜븯怨, BAP MacConkey agar뒗 37℃, 5% CO2 諛곗뼇湲곗뿉꽌 24~48떆媛 룞븞 諛곗뼇븯떎.

遺꾨━맂 꽭洹좎쓽 룞젙

BAP뿉꽌 쟾泥 꽭洹 吏묐씫닔瑜 痢≪젙븯怨, BAP MacConkey agar뿉꽌 Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Micrococcus spp., Bacillus spp., 洹몃엺쓬꽦 留됰洹, Diphtheroid 벑쓽 洹좎쥌쑝濡 쓽떖릺뒗 吏묐씫쓣 1~2媛쒕 꽑깮븯뿬 洹몃엺뿼깋븯怨 룞젙쓣 떎떆븯떎.

BAP뿉꽌 Staphylococcus spp.,媛 쓽떖릺뒗 吏묐씫 2媛쒖뵫 꽑깮븯뿬 catalase, PS latex 寃궗濡 S. aureus coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS)瑜 媛먮퀎븯怨, 硫뷀떚떎由 궡꽦寃궗뒗 cefoxitin 뵒뒪겕 솗궛踰뺤쑝濡 떆뻾븯떎.

Micrococcus spp.굹 Diphtheroids媛 쓽떖릺뒗 吏묐씫 洹몃엺뿼깋 냼寃ъ쓣 넻빐 옞젙 룞젙븯떎. 룞젙맂 洹좎<뒗 Microscan (Siemens, West Sacramento, USA)怨 Vitek 2 (Biomerieux, Durham, USA)瑜 씠슜븯뿬 理쒖쥌 룞젙븯떎.

寃 怨

쑕룿쑝濡쒕꽣 쓽猷뚭젴 媛먯뿼洹좎쓽 遺꾨━

蹂묒썝 洹쇰Т옄 80紐낆쓽 쑕룿 꽭洹 諛곗뼇 寃곌낵 MRCoNS뒗 28二(48.3%), S. aureus뒗 14二(24.2%)媛 遺꾨━릺뿀쑝硫, 씠 以 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA)뒗 3二(5.2%)媛 遺꾨━릺뿀떎. 몴쟻씤 썝궡 媛먯뿼洹좎씤 Acinetobacter baumannii뒗 5二(8.6%)媛 遺꾨━릺뿀쑝硫 MRAB쓽 遺꾨━쑉 2二(3.4%)씠뿀떎. Enterococcus spp. 3二(5.1%), 洹 쇅 洹몃엺쓬꽦 留됰洹좎 Pantoea spp. 2二(3.4%), Acinetobacter lowffii 2二(3.4%), Enterococcus cloacae, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Proteus mirabillis 1二쇱뵫 遺꾨━릺뿀떎. MRCoNS뒗 遺꽌蹂꾨줈 ICU, 6二, AN, 6二, CP, 6二, GW, 4二, ER, 2二, RMT, 2二, RT, 1二, MRT 1二쇨 遺꾨━릺뿀怨 Staphylococcus aureus뒗 遺꽌蹂꾨줈 RMT, 4二, ICU, 3二, ER, 3二, RT, 2二, GW, 2二 AN, 2二쇨 遺꾨━릺뿀떎. Acinetobacter baumannii뒗 遺꽌蹂꾨줈 CP, 1二 RT, 1二, RMT, 1二쇨 遺꾨━릺뿀떎. Enterococcus spp.뒗 遺꽌蹂꾨줈 CP, 1二, RMT, 1二, AN, 1二쇨 遺꾨━릺뿀怨 Pantoea spp.뒗 遺꽌蹂꾨줈 GW, 1二, CP, 1二쇨 遺꾨━릺뿀쑝硫 Acinetobacter lowffii뒗 AN뿉꽌 2二쇨, Enterococcus cloacae, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Proteus mirabillis 媛곴컖 GW, RMT, AN 1二쇱뵫 遺꾨━릺뿀떎. 遺꽌蹂꾨줈뒗 떎瑜 遺꽌뿉꽌뒗 遺꾨━릺吏 븡 multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumanii (MRAB)媛 ER뿉꽌留 2二쇨 遺꾨━릺뿀쑝硫, MRSA 洹좎<뒗 ICU怨 RT, RMT뿉꽌留 1二쇱뵫 遺꾨━릺뿀떎(Table 1).

Isolates from mobile phones of health care workers in a university hospital

Classification GWd ICUe ERf CPg RTh RMTi MRTj ANk Total (%)
MRCoNSa 4 6 2 6 1 2 1 6 28 (48.3)
Staphylococcus aureus 2 2 1 0 1 3 0 2 11 (19.0)
MRSAb 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 3 (5.2)
Acinetobacter baumannii 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 3 (5.2)
MRABc 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 (3.4)
Enterococcus faecium 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 2 (3.4)
Pantoea sp. 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 (3.4)
Acinetobacter lowffii 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 (3.4)
Enterococcus durans 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 (1.7)
Enterobacter cloacae 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 (1.7)
Pseudomonas stutzeri 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 (1.7)
Streptococcus agalactiae 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 (1.7)
Proteus mirabillis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 (1.7)
Total (%) 8 (13.8) 9 (15.5) 5 (8.6) 9 (15.5) 4 (6.9) 10 (17.2) 1 (1.7) 12 (20.7) 58 (100)

a MRCoNS, methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci; b MRSA, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, c MRAB, multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumanii; d GW, General word; e ICU, Intencive care unit; f ER, Emergency room; g CP, Clinical pathology; h RT, Radiation team; i RMT, Rehabilitation medicine team; j MRT, Medical record team; k AN, Assistant nurse



넀 뵽湲곗 쑕룿 삤뿼쓽 愿怨

媛 遺꽌蹂 10紐낆뵫 珥 80紐낆쓣 긽쑝濡 넀 뵽湲 슏닔 쑕룿 몴硫댁뿉꽌 遺꾨━맂 꽭洹좎쓣 鍮꾧탳븳 寃곌낵, 넀 뵽湲 슏닔 룊洹좉낵 쑕룿 1떦 遺꾨━맂 꽭洹 닔쓽 룊洹좎 以묓솚옄떎 23.8쉶, 0.9二, 쓳湲됱떎 22.5쉶, 0.5二, 옱솢쓽븰 21.0쉶, 1.0二, 쁺긽쓽븰 20.3쉶, 0.4二, 씪諛 蹂묐룞 16.3쉶, 0.8二, 吏꾨떒寃궗쓽븰 17.8쉶, 0.9二, 媛꾪샇蹂댁“ 遺꽌 8.9쉶 1.2二, 쓽臾닿린濡앺 7.7쉶뿉 0.1二 닚 씠뿀떎(Table 2).

The relation of between times of hand washing and number of bacterial isolates on mobile phone surface in each department (%)

Department Times of hand washing No. of isolates/mobile phone (%)
ICU**,a 23.8 9/10 (90)
ER**,b 22.5 5/10 (50)
RMT**,c 21.0 10/10 (100)
RT**,d 20.3 4/10 (40)
CP**,e 17.8 9/10 (90)
GW**,f 16.3 8/10 (80)
AN**,g 8.9 10/10 (100)
MRT*,h 7.7 1/10 (10)

*Non patient contact Group, **Patient contact Group

a ICU, Intencive care unit; b ER, Emergency room; c RMT, Rehabilitation medicine team; d RT, Radiation team; e CP, Clinical pathology; f GW, General word; g AN, Assistant nurse; h MRT, Medical record team



넀 뵽湲곗 쑕룿 몴硫댁뿉꽌 遺꾨━맂 꽭洹 닔쓽 愿怨꾨 鍮꾧탳븯湲 쐞빐 넀 뵽湲 슏닔 援ш컙쓣 6~10쉶, 11~20쉶, 21~30쉶, 31쉶 씠긽쑝濡 굹늻뼱 쑕룿 몴硫댁뿉꽌 遺꾨━맂 꽭洹 닔瑜 遺꾩꽍븯떎. 8媛 遺꽌 以묒뿉꽌 쓳湲됱떎, 쁺긽쓽븰, 쓽臾닿린濡앺뿉꽌뒗 꽭洹 닔媛 쟻寃 寃異쒕릺뼱 넀 뵽湲 援ш컙蹂 쉶닔 쑕룿 몴硫댁뿉꽌 遺꾨━맂 꽭洹 닔쓽 愿怨꾧 굹굹吏 븡븯쑝굹 씪諛 蹂묐룞, 吏꾨떒寃궗쓽븰, 以묓솚옄떎, 옱솢쓽븰쓣 긽쑝濡 넀 뵽湲 슏닔 援ш컙쓣 6~10쉶, 11~20쉶, 21~30쉶, 31쉶 씠긽쑝濡 굹늻뼱 넀 뵽湲 슏닔 쑕룿 몴硫댁쓽 꽭洹 삤뿼쓣 鍮꾧탳븳 寃곌낵 21~30쉶 씠긽 넀쓣 뵽뒗 寃쎌슦遺꽣뒗 쑕룿 1媛쒕떦 遺꾨━맂 꽭洹 닔쓽 룊洹좎 媛먯냼븯떎(Table 3).

The relation of between times of hand washing and the number of bacterial isolates on mobile phone (%)

Department Hand washing time (sec) No. of isolates/mobile phone (%)
ICUa 6~10 1/2 (50)
11~20 3/4 (75)
21~30 1/1 (100)
> 31 3/4 (75)
ERb 11~20 1/5 (20)
21~30 2/3 (67)
> 31 2/2 (100)
RMTc 6~10 2/2 (100)
11~20 3/5 (60)
21~30 3/3 (100)
> 31 0/2 (0)
RTd 6~10 0/3 (0)
11~20 2/2 (100)
21~30 1/3 (33)
> 31 1/2 (50)
CPe 6~10 1/1 (100)
11~20 6/6 (100)
21~30 2/3 (67)
GWf 6~10 3/3 (100)
11~20 5/5 (100)
21~30 0/1 (0)
> 31 0/1 (0)
ANg < 5 1/1 (100)
6~10 7/7 (100)
11~20 1/2 (50)
> 31 0/1 (0)
MRTh < 5 0/2 (0)
6~10 0/7 (0)
11~20 1/1 (100)

a ICU, Intencive care unit; b ER, Emergency room; c RMT, Rehabilitation medicine team; d RT, Radiation team; e CP, Clinical pathology; f GW, General word; g AN, Assistant nurse; h MRT, Medical record team



넀 뵽湲 1쉶떦 떆媛꾧낵 쑕룿 몴硫댁뿉꽌 遺꾨━맂 꽭洹 닔쓽 愿怨꾨 鍮꾧탳븯湲 쐞빐 넀 뵽뒗 1쉶떦 떆媛꾩쓣 10珥 씠븯, 10~20珥, 21~30珥, 30~40珥, 40珥 씠긽쑝濡 굹늻뼱 쑕룿 몴硫댁뿉꽌 遺꾨━맂 꽭洹 닔瑜 遺꾩꽍븯떎.

8媛쒕꽌쓽 以묒뿉꽌 쓳湲됱떎, 쁺긽쓽븰, 쓽臾닿린濡앺뿉꽌뒗 쑕룿 몴硫댁뿉꽌 遺꾨━맂 꽭洹 닔媛 쟻寃 寃異쒕릺뼱 넀 뵽湲 1쉶떦 떆媛꾧낵 쑕룿 몴硫댁뿉꽌 遺꾨━맂 꽭洹 닔쓽 愿怨꾧 굹굹吏 븡븯쑝굹 씪諛 蹂묐룞, 吏꾨떒寃궗쓽븰, 以묓솚옄떎, 옱솢쓽븰쓣 긽쑝濡 넀 뵽湲 1쉶떦 떆媛꾩쓣 蹂대㈃ 넀 뵽뒗 떆媛 룊洹좎씠 25.5珥 씠긽씤 寃쎌슦 쑕룿 1媛쒕떦 꽭洹 닔쓽 룊洹좎 媛먯냼븯떎(Table 4).

Relation of handwashing time and number of bacterial isolates on mobile phone (%)

Department Handwashing time (sec) No. of isolates/mobile phone
ICUa 5 0/1 (0)
15.5 3/4 (75)
25.5 1/2 (50)
35.5 1/1 (100)
45.5 3/3 (100)
ERb 5 0/2 (0)
15.5 2/4 (50)
25.5 2/2 (100)
35.5 0/1 (0)
45.5 1/1 (100)
RMTc 5 3/4 (75)
15.5 4/4 (100)
35.5 0/3 (0)
RTd 15.5 3/8 (35)
25.5 1/1 (100)
45.5 0/1 (0)
CPe 5 1/2 (50)
15.5 7/7 (100)
25.5 1/9 (11)
GWf 15.5 4/4 (100)
25.5 4/5 (80)
35.5 0/1 (0)
ANg < 5 0/1 (0)
15.5 6/6 (100)
25.5 3/3 (100)
MRTh < 5 0/3 (0)
15.5 1/6 (17)
35.5 0/1 (0)

The average of time of hand washing in one-time (sec) is used by the average of the medians of interval and all of measured values are rounded to the one decimals

a ICU, Intencive care unit; b ER, Emergency room; c RMT, Rehabilitation medicine team; d RT, Radiation team; e CP, Clinical pathology; f GW, General word; g AN, Assistant nurse; h MRT, Medical record team



쑕룿 議곗옉 떆媛꾧낵 쑕룿 삤뿼쓽 愿怨

쑕룿 몴硫댁쓽 꽭洹 삤뿼怨 넀 뵽湲 젙룄媛 쑀궗븳 遺꽌뱾뿉 빐꽌 쑕룿 議곗옉 떆媛꾧낵 쑕룿쓽 몴硫 꽭洹좎쓽 愿怨꾨 議곗궗븳 寃곌낵 쓽臾닿린濡앺쓽 넀 뵽湲 슏닔 룊洹좎 7.7쉶, 쑕룿 議곗옉 떆媛꾩 27.4遺, 쑕룿 1媛쒕떦 꽭洹 닔쓽 룊洹좎 0.1二쇱씠뿀떎. 넀 뵽湲 슏닔 룊洹좎씠 媛곴컖 22.5쉶, 20.3쉶, 쑕룿 1媛쒕떦 꽭洹 닔쓽 룊洹좎씠 0.5二, 0.4二쇰줈 쑀궗븳 쓳湲됱떎怨 쁺긽쓽븰쓽 쑕룿 議곗옉 떆媛꾩 媛곴컖 19.3쉶, 28.5쉶씠뿀떎. 넀 뵽湲 슏닔 룊洹좎씠 媛곴컖 16.3쉶, 17.8쉶, 쑕룿 1媛쒕떦 꽭洹 닔쓽 룊洹좎씠 0.8二, 0.9二쇰줈 쑀궗븳 씪諛 蹂묐룞怨 吏꾨떒寃궗쓽븰쓽 쑕룿 議곗옉 떆媛꾩 媛곴컖 12.3쉶, 26.5쉶씠뿀떎. 넀 뵽湲 슏닔 룊洹좎씠 媛곴컖 23.8쉶, 21.0쉶, 쑕룿 1媛쒕떦 꽭洹좎쓽 醫낅쪟 媛쒖닔 룊洹좎씠 0.9二, 1.0二쇰줈 쑀궗븳 以묓솚옄떎怨 옱솢쓽븰쓽 쑕룿 議곗옉 떆媛꾩 媛곴컖 8.1쉶, 29.4쉶씠뿀떎. 씠윭븳 寃곌낵 쑕룿 議곗옉 떆媛꾧낵 쑕룿 몴硫댁쓽 꽭洹 닔뒗 뿰愿꽦씠 굹굹吏 븡븯떎(Table 5).

The relation of mobile phone using time and isolates on mobile phone in each department (%)

Department Mobile phone using time (min) Handwashing time (sec) No. of isolates/mobile phone
ANa 29.5 9.9 10/10 (100)
RMTb 29.4 21.0 10/10 (100)
RTc 28.5 20.3 4/10 (40)
MRTd 27.4 7.7 1/10 (10)
CPe 26.5 17.8 9/10 (90)
ERf 19.3 22.5 5/10 (50)
GWg 12.3 16.3 8/10 (80)
ICUh 8.1 23.8 9/10 (90)

a AN, Assistant nurse; b RMT, Rehabilitation medicine team; c RT, Radiation team; d MRT, Medical record team; e CP, Clinical pathology; f ER, Emergency room; g GW, General word; h ICU, Intencive care unit



遺꽌蹂 듅꽦怨 쑕룿 몴硫 삤뿼쓽 愿怨

遺꽌蹂 듅꽦怨 쑕룿 몴硫댁쓽 꽭洹 遺꾨━瑜 鍮꾧탳븳 寃곌낵, 솚옄 鍮꾩젒珥 遺꽌씤 쓽臾닿린濡앺 넀 뵽湲 슏닔 룊洹좎씠 7.7쉶씠뿀怨 쑕룿 1媛쒕떦 꽭洹좎쓽 醫낅쪟 媛쒖닔 룊洹좎 0.1二쇱씠뿀떎. 솚옄 젒珥 遺꽌씤 쓳湲됱떎, 쁺긽쓽븰, 씪諛 蹂묐룞, 吏꾨떒寃궗쓽븰, 以묓솚옄떎, 옱솢쓽븰 쟾泥댁쓽 넀 뵽湲 슏닔 룊洹좎 20.3쉶씠뿀쑝硫, 쑕룿 1媛쒕떦 꽭洹 닔쓽 룊洹좎 0.75二쇱씠뿀떎. 떒, 媛꾪샇蹂댁“ 遺꽌뒗 遺꽌 遺꽌瑜 삷寃 떎땲怨 뿬윭 遺꽌뿉꽌 씪븯誘濡 遺꽌蹂 듅꽦쓣 몴븳떎怨 蹂 닔 뾾뼱 遺꽌 遺꽌 援 遺꾨쪟뿉꽌 젣쇅븯떎.

솚옄젒珥 遺꽌뿉꽌 쓳湲됱떎怨 쁺긽쓽븰 넀 뵽湲 슏닔媛 媛곴컖 22.5쉶, 20.3쉶, 쑕룿 1媛쒕떦 꽭洹 닔쓽 룊洹좎 0.5二, 0.4二쇰줈 쑀궗븯떎. 씪諛 蹂묐룞怨 吏꾨떒寃궗쓽븰 넀 뵽湲 슏닔媛 媛곴컖 16.3쉶, 17.8쉶, 쑕룿 1媛쒕떦 꽭洹 닔쓽 룊洹좎 0.8二, 0.9二쇰줈 쑀궗븯떎. 以묓솚옄떎怨 옱솢쓽븰 넀 뵽湲 슏닔媛 媛곴컖 23.8쉶, 21.0쉶, 쑕룿 1媛쒕떦 꽭洹 닔쓽 룊洹좎 0.9二, 1.0二쇰줈 쑀궗븯떎. 遺꽌蹂 듅꽦怨 쑕룿 몴硫댁뿉꽌 遺꾨━맂 꽭洹좎쓽 닔瑜 鍮꾧탳븳 寃곌낵 쑕룿 몴硫댁쓽 꽭洹 닔뒗 遺꽌쓽 솚옄젒珥 뿬遺 긽 솚옄쓽 李⑥씠 벑 빐떦 遺꽌 愿젴씠 엳뿀떎(Table 6).

Relation of isolates from department of patient contact and patient non-contact on mobile phone (%)

Classification Department Times of hand washing No. of isolates / mobile phone
Patient contact (N=60) ERa, RTb, GWc, CPd, ICUe, RMTf 20.3 45/60 (75)
Non patient contact (N=10) MRTg 7.7 1/10 (10)

a ER, Emergency room; b RT, Radiation team; c GW, General word; d CP, Clinical pathology; e ICU, Intencive care unit; f RMT, Rehabilitation medicine team; g MRT, Medical record team


怨 李

理쒓렐쓽 쓽猷 솚寃쎌뿉꽌 쓽猷뚯쥌궗옄뱾씠 쑕룿쓣 씪긽쟻씤 뿰씫 肉 留 븘땲씪 쓽猷뚯젙蹂댁쓽 쟾떖 벑 븘닔쟻씤 쓽猷 뻾쐞쓽 닔떒쑝濡 궗슜븿뿉 뵲씪 쑕룿 쓽猷뚭젴 媛먯뿼洹좎쓽 삤뿼쓣 굹궡뒗 븯굹쓽 吏몴씪 肉먮쭔 븘땲씪 쓽猷뚭젴 媛먯뿼洹좎쓽 삉 떎瑜 媛먯뿼썝씠 맆 닔 엳떎. 뵲씪꽌 쑕룿 몴硫댁뿉꽌 꽭洹좎쓣 遺꾨━ 룞젙븯怨 쓽猷뚭젴 媛먯뿼洹좎뿉 븳 쁺뼢쓣 遺꾩꽍븿쑝濡쒖꽌 蹂대떎 슚쑉쟻씤 媛먯뿼愿由 梨낆쓣 꽭슦뒗뜲 湲곕낯 뿰援ъ옄猷뚮줈 솢슜븯怨좎옄 븯떎.

蹂 뿰援ъ쓽 떎뿕 寃곌낵 蹂묒썝 洹쇰Т옄 80紐낆쓽 쑕쟾솕 꽭洹 諛곗뼇 寃곌낵 MRCoNS뒗 28二(48.3%), S. aureus뒗 14二(24.2%), MRSA뒗 3二(5.2%), A. baumannii뒗 5二(8.6%), MRAB뒗 2二(3.4%), Enterococcus spp. 3二(5.1%), Pantoea spp. 2二(3.4%) E. cloacae, P. stutzeri, P. mirabillis, A. owffii 1二쇱뵫 遺꾨━릺뿀떎. 遺꽌蹂꾨줈뒗 떎瑜 遺꽌뿉꽌뒗 遺꾨━릺吏 븡 multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumanii (MRAB)媛 쓳湲됱떎뿉꽌留 2二쇨 遺꾨━릺뿀쑝硫 MRSA 洹좎<뒗 以묓솚옄떎怨 쁺긽쓽븰, 옱솢쓽븰뿉꽌留 1二쇱뵫 遺꾨━릺뿀떎. 쓽猷뚯쭊쓽 쑕쟾솕뿉꽌 遺꾨━맂 쓽猷뚭젴 媛먯뿼 蹂묒썝洹좎뿉꽌뒗 씤꽩怨 젅吏뜕듃 101紐낆쓽 쑕룿쓣 긽쑝濡 S. aureus뒗 13二(12.9%), VRE뒗 1二(1.0%), MRSA뒗 4二(4.0%), MRCoNs뒗 38二(37.6%)怨 洹몃엺쓬꽦 留됰洹좎 遺꾨━릺吏 븡븯떎(Kim et al., 2010). 蹂 뿰援ъ쓽 寃곌낵 꽑뻾 뿰援 寃곌낵媛 빟媛꾩쓽 李⑥씠瑜 蹂댁씠뒗 寃껋 뿰援 긽怨 뿰援 떆젏, 洹몃━怨 寃궗 諛⑸쾿씠 떎瑜닿린 븣臾몄씠씪怨 깮媛곷맂떎.

遺꽌蹂 넀 뵽湲 슏닔 룊洹좉낵 쑕룿 몴硫댁쓽 꽭洹좎쓣 議곗궗븳 寃곌낵 쑕룿 몴硫댁쓽 꽭洹좎씠 넀 뵽湲 슏닔 愿怨꾧 뾾뒗 寃껋쑝濡 굹궗쑝굹 씠윭븳 썝씤 넀 뵽湲 슏닔 쑕룿 몴硫댁쓽 꽭洹좎 遺꽌蹂 뾽臾 듅꽦쓽 쁺뼢쓣 諛쏆븘 굹궃 寃껋쑝濡 蹂 닔 엳뿀떎.

蹂묐룞蹂대떎 以묓솚옄떎뿉꽌 쓽猷뚯쭊쓽 넀 쐞깮 닔뻾瑜좎씠 넂吏留(Chun et al., 2014) 遺꽌쓽 듅꽦쑝濡 씤빐 以묓솚옄떎 씪諛 蹂묐룞뿉 鍮꾪빐꽌 쓽猷뚭젴 媛먯뿼洹좎쓽 삤뿼씠 넂떎뒗 蹂닿퀬媛 엳떎(Lee et al., 2014). 씠윭븳 遺꽌蹂 듅꽦쓽 쁺뼢쓣 젣嫄고븯湲 쐞븯뿬 넀 뵽湲 슏닔 룊洹좉낵 쑕룿 몴硫댁쓽 꽭洹좎씠 쑀궗븳 遺꽌 援곗쓣 긽쑝濡 넀 뵽湲 슏닔 쑕룿 몴硫댁쓽 꽭洹좉낵쓽 愿怨꾨 鍮꾧탳븯떎.

넀 뵽湲 슏닔 쑕룿 몴硫댁쓽 꽭洹 삤뿼 愿怨꾨 紐낇솗엳 蹂댁뿬以 씪諛 蹂묐룞, 吏꾨떒寃궗쓽븰, 以묓솚옄떎, 옱솢쓽븰쓣 긽쑝濡 議곗궗븳 寃곌낵 넀 뵽湲 슏닔媛 留롮쓣닔濡 쑕룿 몴硫댁쓽 꽭洹좎 媛먯냼븯떎. 삉븳, 넀 뵽湲 1쉶떦 떆媛꾧낵 쑕룿 몴硫댁쓽 꽭洹좎뿉 빐꽌룄 넀 뵽湲 1쉶떦 떆媛 룊洹 援ш컙(珥)쓣 2媛 援ш컙(5~15.5珥, 25.5~45.5珥)쑝濡 굹늻뼱 議곗궗븳 寃곌낵 넀 뵽湲 1쉶떦 떆媛꾩씠 湲몄닔濡 쑕룿 몴硫댁쓽 꽭洹 寃異 닔媛 媛먯냼븯떎. 15珥 誘몃쭔(Ojajarvi, 1981), 15珥 媛(Sprunt et al., 1973), 50~60珥 젙룄(Steere and Mallison, 1975) 넀쓣 뵽쓣 寃쎌슦 씪怨쇱꽦 誘몄깮臾쇱쓣 媛먯냼떆궗 닔 엳떎怨 二쇱옣븯쑝굹 蹂 뿰援ъ뿉 쓽븯硫 룊洹 25珥 씠긽씤 寃쎌슦 쑕룿 몴硫댁뿉꽌 꽭洹좎쓽 닔媛 媛먯냼븯떎. 넀 뵽湲곕 슏닔 1쉶떦 떆媛(sec)쑝濡 痢≪젙븯뒗뜲, 넀 뵽湲 슏닔 1쉶떦 떆媛꾩쓽 愿怨꾨 議곗궗븳 寃곌낵 넀 뵽湲 슏닔媛 留롮븘吏덉닔濡 넀 뵽湲 1쉶떦 떆媛꾨룄 湲몄뿀떎. 씠윭븳 議곗궗 寃곌낵뒗 넀 뵽湲 슏닔 넀 뵽湲 1쉶떦 떆媛꾧낵뒗 愿젴꽦씠 뾾떎뒗 뿰援 寃곌낵뒗 떖由 넀 뵽湲 슏닔媛 留롮쓣닔濡 넀 뵽湲 1쉶떦 떆媛꾨룄 湲몄뼱議뚮떎뒗 뿰援 寃곌낵 씪移섑븯떎(Hur et al., 2010). 씠윭븳 寃곌낵뿉 쓽븯硫 넀 뵽湲곕뒗 쑕룿 몴硫댁쓽 꽭洹좎쓣 寃곗젙븯뒗 二쇰맂 썝씤 以 븯굹씪怨 뙋떒맂떎. 蹂묒썝 洹쇰Т옄뱾 以묒뿉뒗 留ㅼ씪 눜洹 吏곸쟾뿉 쑕룿쓣 냼룆븯뒗 洹쇰Т옄뱾씠 엳떎. 눜洹 吏곸쟾 쑕룿 냼룆 뻾쐞 쑕룿 몴硫댁쓽 꽭洹 닔쓽 愿怨꾨 議곗궗븳 꽑뻾 뿰援щ 李얠쓣 닔뒗 뾾뿀쑝굹 씠윭븳 쑕룿 냼룆 뻾쐞뒗 蹂묒썝 궡 洹쇰Т 以 쑕룿 몴硫댁쓽 꽭洹좎뿉 쁺뼢쓣 誘몄튌 닔 엳뼱 쑕룿 냼룆怨 쑕룿 몴硫댁쓽 꽭洹좉낵쓽 愿怨꾨 鍮꾧탳븳 寃곌낵 쑕룿 냼룆 젏닔媛 媛옣 넂 25젏씪 븣 쑕룿 몴硫댁쓽 꽭洹 遺꾨━媛 媛옣 留롮븯떎.

솚옄젒珥 遺꽌뱾뿉 빐 넀 뵽湲 슏닔 룊洹좎씠 쑀궗븳 遺꽌蹂꾨줈 쑕룿 몴硫댁뿉꽌 遺꾨━맂 꽭洹좎쓣 議곗궗븳 寃곌낵 遺꽌 遺꽌 援곗뿉 뵲씪 꽭洹 삤뿼씠 떎瑜닿쾶 굹궗떎. 쓳湲됱떎쓽 쑕룿 1媛쒕떦 遺꾨━맂 꽭洹좎쓽 닔 룊洹좎 0.5二(50%), 씪諛 蹂묐룞쓽 쑕룿 1媛쒕떦 遺꾨━맂 꽭洹좎쓽 닔 룊洹좎 0.8二(80%), 以묓솚옄떎 쑕룿 1媛쒕떦 遺꾨━맂 꽭洹 닔쓽 룊洹좎 0.9二(90%)씠뿀떎. 씠윭븳 寃곌낵뒗 鍮꾧컯 궡 MRSA 寃異 湲곗쑝濡 蹂 遺꽌蹂 쓽猷뚭젴 媛먯뿼洹좎뿉 븳 꽑뻾 뿰援ъ뿉 뵲瑜대㈃ 쓳湲됱떎쓽 MRSA 遺꾨━쑉씠 7.3%濡 媛옣 궙븯怨 씪諛 蹂묐룞 12.4%씠뿀怨, 以묓솚옄떎 27.7%濡 媛옣 넂븯떎뒗 寃곌낵 씪移섑븯떎(Kim et al., 2007). 씠윭븳 寃곌낵뿉 쓽븯硫 蹂묒썝 궡 遺꽌蹂 뾽臾 듅꽦뿉 뵲씪 쓽猷뚭젴 媛먯뿼洹좎쓽 쑕룿 삤뿼뿉 쁺뼢쓣 誘몄튂뒗 二쇰맂 썝씤 以 븯굹濡 깮媛곷맂떎. 삉븳 蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌 쑕룿 몴硫댁쓽 꽭洹 삤뿼쓣 以꾩씠湲 쐞빐 넀 뵽湲 떆媛꾨낫떎뒗 넀 뵽湲 슏닔媛 뜑 넂寃 굹삩 寃껋 넀 뵽뒗 떆媛꾩쓽 以묒슂꽦뿉 븳 援먯쑁怨 떎泥쒖씠 븘슂븷 寃껋쑝濡 깮媛곷릺硫, 李④린 떎뿕뿉꽌뒗 몴蹂 닔瑜 솗븯怨 쑕룿쓽 몴硫 諛곗뼇怨 룞떆뿉 蹂묒썝 洹쇰Т옄쓽 넀 諛곗뼇쓣 룞떆뿉 떎뿕븳떎硫 蹂대떎 援ъ껜쟻씤 媛먯뿼愿由 븞쓣 룄異쒗븷 닔 엳쓣 寃껋쑝濡 깮媛곷맂떎.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

None.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.

References
  1. CDC. CDC web sites on Antibiotic resistance threats in the United Stat es. Updated on 2013. 2013.
  2. Chun HK, Kim ML, Hwang JI. Hand Hygiene Promotion in a Hospital Setting through the WHO Multimodal Hand Hygiene Improvement Strategy. Korean J Nosocomial Infect Control. 2014. 19: 1-14.
    CrossRef
  3. Hur SY, Kwon HJ, Kim JS. A Study on Recognition and Performance of Medical Manpower about the Hand Washing. Journal of the Korea Data Analysis Society. 2010. 12: 1979-1991.
  4. Kim JS, Kwon OK, Song WKSong WK et al. Isolation of Healthcare-Associated Pathogens from Cellular Phones Used by Medical Personnel. Korean J Nosocomial Infect Control. 2010. 15: 36-40.
  5. Kim OS, Yoon SW, Kang YJ, Kim YK, Lee NY, Lee JHLee JH et al. Rate of Nasal Colonization of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus at Admission to a Medical Intensive Care Unit. Korean J Nosocomial Infect Control. 2007. 12: 42-49.
  6. Lee YS, Kim YA, Song WKSong WK et al. KONS AR Group. Recent Trends in Antimicrobial Resistance. in Intensive Care Units in Korea.". Korean J Nosocomial Infect Control. 2014. 19: 29-36.
    CrossRef
  7. Ojajarvi J. The importance of soap selection for routine hygiene in hospital. Journal Hygine. 1981. 86: 275-283.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  8. Otter JA, Yezli S, French GL. The role played by contaminated surface s in the transmission of nosocomial pathogens. Infect Control Hospital Epidemiol. 2011. 32: 687-699.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  9. Siegel JD, Rhinehart E, Jackson M, Chiarello L. Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. Management of multidrug-resist ant organisms in health care settings. Am J Infect Control. 2007. 35: 165-193.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  10. Sprunt K. Redman W. Leidy G. Antimicrobacterial effectiveness of routine handwashing. Pediatrics. 1973. 52: 264-271.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  11. Steere AC, Mallison GF. Handwashing Practices for the Preven tion of Nosocomial Infections. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1975. 83: 683-690.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  12. Yoo JH. The Recent Trend and Perspective of Infection Control in the Republic of Korea. Korean J Nosocomial Infect Control. 2016. 21: 1-8.
    CrossRef