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A Study on the Relationship between Changes in Cerebral Blood Flow and Depression Index after Smoking
Biomed Sci Letters 2023;29:34-40
Published online March 31, 2023;  https://doi.org/10.15616/BSL.2023.29.1.34
© 2023 The Korean Society For Biomedical Laboratory Sciences.

Gil-Hyun Lee1,* and Kyung-Yae Hyun2,†,*

1Department of Clinical Laboratory Science, Wonkwang Health Science University, Iksan 54538, Korea
2Department of Clinical Laboratory Science, Dong-Eui University, Busan 47340, Korea
Correspondence to: Kyung-Yae Hyun. Department of Clinical Laboratory Science, Dong-Eui University, Busan 47340, Korea.
Tel: +82-51-890-2683, Fax: +82-51-890-2622, e-mail: kyhyun@deu.ac.kr
*Professor.
Received February 27, 2023; Accepted March 28, 2023.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
 Abstract
Smoking is one of the three major risk factors for vascular disease along with hypertension and hyperlipidemia. It is true that smoking has a negative effect on the circulatory system, and the frequency of coronary artery disease and peripheral vascular disease is significantly increased in smokers. Many epidemiological studies report that smokers have an approximately two-fold increased risk of coronary artery disease compared to non-smokers. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between cerebral blood flow change and depression index after acute smoking. Cerebral blood flow tests were performed before and after smoking in 8 subjects. Changes in blood flow after smoking were correlated with the depression score and negatively correlated with the depression score. In particular, there was a strong correlation with changes in blood flow in anterior cerebral artery. It is well known that changes in blood flow after smoking have a negative effect. In addition, considering the study that smoking aggravates the symptoms of depression, it was found that smoking and depression are factors that negatively affect each other.
Keywords : Smoking, TCD, Depression index, Anterior cerebral artery
꽌 濡

씉뿰 怨좏삁븬, 怨좎삁利앷낵 븿猿 삁愿吏덊솚쓣 씪쑝궎뒗 3 쐞뿕슂냼 以묒쓽 븯굹씠떎. 씉뿰씠 닚솚湲곌퀎뿉 遺젙쟻씤 쁺뼢쓣 겮移섍퀬, 愿긽룞留μ쭏솚怨 留먯큹삁愿吏덊솚쓽 鍮덈룄媛 씉뿰옄뿉꽌 쁽엳 利앷븯뒗 젏 궗떎씠떎. 留롮 뿭븰뿰援ъ뿉꽌 씉뿰옄뒗 鍮꾪씉뿰옄뿉 鍮꾪빐꽌 愿긽룞留μ쭏솚뿉 嫄몃┫ 쐞뿕씠 빟 2諛 利앷븳떎怨 蹂닿퀬븯怨 엳떎(Boyajian and Otis, 2000). 삉븳, 씉뿰 궗吏쓽 留먯큹삁愿吏덊솚, 蹂듬 룞留λ쪟, 뇤議몄쨷쓽 以묒슂븳 썝씤씠 릺湲곕룄 븳떎. 씉뿰뿉 쓽븳 뇤議몄쨷쓽 湲곗쟾씠 븘吏 슌졆븯寃 諛앺吏吏 븡븯吏留, 떎쓬怨 媛숈 뿬윭 媛吏 湲곗쟾뱾씠 젣떆릺怨 엳떎. 삁愿湲곗쟾쑝濡쒕뒗 룞留 닔異뺤쓽 珥됱쭊(Pan et al., 2019), 二쎌긽寃쏀솕利앹쓽 珥됱쭊(Cho et al., 2005), 吏곸젒쟻씤 삁愿궡뵾룆냼濡쒖쓽 옉슜(Xu et al., 2013), 援먭컧떊寃쎌옄洹뱀쑝濡 옉슜(Hawkins et al., 2002) 벑씠 엳쓣 닔 엳떎. 삁븸븰쟻씤 슂냼濡쒕뒗 prostacyclin쓽 빐(Helmersson et al., 2005), 異쒗삁떆媛꾩쓽 媛먯냼, 삁냼뙋 湲곕뒫怨 솢꽦쓽 蹂솕(Oksala et al., 2007), 삁옣 fibrinogen쓽 利앷(Oksala et al., 2007), hematocrit쓽 利앷 벑씠 엳쓣 닔 엳떎.

슦슱利앹씠 吏냽쟻씤 슦슱긽깭, 遺덉풄媛, 遺덉븞, 궗쉶뻾룞怨 슃援ъ쓽 蹂솕, 젙떊 슫룞꽦쓽 蹂솕 洹몃━怨 닔硫댁옣븷 벑쓽 利앹긽뱾씠 듅吏뺤씠떎. 꽭怨꾨낫嫄닿린援ъ쓽 蹂닿퀬뿉 쓽븯硫 쟾 꽭怨 씤援ъ쓽 25%媛 씪깮 룞븞 紐 踰덉쓽 슦슱利앹꽭瑜 寃쏀뿕븯뒗 寃껋쑝濡 븣젮졇 엳떎(Jeon, 2011). 슦슱利앹쓽 썝씤쑝濡쒕뒗 쑀쟾쟻 媛議깅젰, 媛먯젙쟻쑝濡 怨좏넻뒪윭슫 궗嫄, 샇瑜대が 닔移섏쓽 蹂솕, 듅젙 떊泥댁쟻 옣븷 洹몃━怨 듅젙 빟臾쇱쓽 遺옉슜 벑씠 엳떎(Giesecke et al., 2005). 洹몃━怨, 쟾몢뿽뿉꽌 鍮꾩젙긽쟻씤 뇤삁瑜섏쓽 쓲由꾩씠 룞諛섎맂떎怨 븣젮졇 엳떎(Neu et al., 2004).

씉뿰옄뱾 寃쏀뿕쟻쑝濡 씉뿰씠 吏꾩젙슚怨쇨 엳뼱 슦슱利앹긽쓣 셿솕빐 以 寃껋씠씪뒗 誘우쓬쓣 媛吏怨 엳떎. 洹몃윭굹, 뿭쑝濡 씉뿰 洹 옄泥닿 슦슱利앹쓣 쑀諛쒗븯뒗 痢〓㈃룄 엳쑝硫, 뼱뒓 履쎌씠 슦꽭븳 쁺뼢쓣 誘몄튂뒗吏뿉 븳 끉웳 븘吏 吏냽릺怨 엳떎(Paperwalla et al., 2004). 씉뿰쓣 슦슱利앹쓽 쐞뿕씤옄濡 蹂대뒗 뿰援щ뱾뿉꽌뒗 땲肄뷀떞씠 留덉튂 湲됱꽦 뒪듃젅뒪泥섎읆 옉슜븯뿬 떆긽븯遺-뇤븯닔泥-遺떊 異뺤쓣 옄洹뱁븯怨 씤泥 궡 肄붾Ⅴ떚肄붿뒪뀒濡쒖씠뱶瑜 利앷떆궎嫄곕굹 룄뙆誘 諛 꽭濡쒗넗땶 냽룄瑜 利앸븯뿬 苡뚭컧씠 諛쒖깮븯吏留, 諛섎났쟻씤 씉뿰 씠뱾 臾쇱쭏쓽 媛먯냼 샊, 뿭移섏쓽 긽듅쑝濡 苡뚮씫 떊 슦슱利앹긽쓣 빞湲고븷 닔 엳떎뒗 寃껋씠떎(Paperwalla et al., 2004; Giesecke et al., 2005; Pan et al., 2019). 떎닔쓽 뿰援ъ뿉꽌 씉뿰옄뒗 鍮꾪씉뿰옄뿉 鍮꾪븯뿬 슦슱利앹긽쓣 빟 2諛 씠긽 넻怨꾩쟻쑝濡 쓽誘몄엳寃 利앷떆궓떎뒗 蹂닿퀬媛 엳떎(Patton et al., 1996; Steger et al., 2009).

寃쎈몢媛 룄뵆윭寃궗(Transcranial doppler ultrasonography, TCD) 샊 뇤삁瑜섍궗뒗 삁愿쓽 씪遺媛 醫곸븘吏硫 洹 遺쐞瑜 넻怨쇳븯뒗 삁瑜섏쓽 냽룄媛 긽쟻쑝濡 鍮⑤씪吏뒗 젏쓣 媛먯븞븯뿬 쐞뿕룄瑜 듅젙븯뒗 옣移섎줈 뇤議몄쨷怨 媛숈 뇤삁愿吏덊솚, 吏二쇰쭑븯 異쒗삁뿉꽌 삁愿 뿰異 룊媛, 뇤궗 뙋젙, 궡寃쎈룞留 궡뵾 젣嫄곗닠 諛 떖옣 닔닠 以 媛먯떆, 二쇱슂 궡몢媛쒓낏 룞留μ쓽 삊李⑹쬆 寃궗 벑뿉 궗슜븯뒗 鍮꾩묠뒿쟻씤 寃궗 諛⑸쾿씠떎(Purkayastha and Sorond, 2012). 삉븳 솚옄媛 吏곸씠吏 븡怨 솚옄 쁿뿉꽌 옣移섎 돺寃 씠룞븯뿬 궗슜븷 닔 엳怨 移⑥뒿쟻씤 떆닠씠굹 빟臾쇱씠 븘슂 뾾쑝硫 吏냽쟻쑝濡 寃곌낵瑜 뙋룆븷 닔 엳뼱 쟾떊 留덉랬瑜 諛쏅뒗 솚옄뿉寃 뇤 삁뿭븰쓣 룊媛븯뒗 쟻빀븳 諛⑸쾿씠떎. 寃쎌륫몢怨 젒洹쇱쑝濡 뇤 룞留μ쓽 삁瑜섏냽룄瑜 痢≪젙븷 븣, 愿옄李(temporal window)쓽 몢猿섏뿉 뵲씪 寃궗媛 떎뙣븷 媛뒫꽦씠 엳뒗뜲, 굹씠媛 留롮쓣닔濡, 뿬꽦씪닔濡 몢猿섍 몢爰쇱썙 떎뙣븷 媛뒫꽦씠 넂 寃껋씠 븳怨꾩젏씠떎(Ali, 2021).

쁽옱 뇤삁瑜섍궗瑜 씠슜븳 씉뿰 떎뿕 떎뼇븯寃 씠猷⑥뼱졇 엳쑝硫, 씠뿉 븳 湲곗큹엫긽옄猷뚮룄 뭾遺븳 렪씠떎. 븯吏留 留뚯꽦쟻씤 씉뿰옄媛 븘땶 씉뿰 썑 湲됱꽦쟻씤 뇤삁瑜 蹂솕뿉 븳 옄猷뚯 슦슱利앹긽怨쇱쓽 뿰愿꽦뿉 븳 뿰援щ뒗 誘명씉븳 렪씠硫, 씠뿉 븳 議곗궗瑜 쐞븯뿬 뿰援щ 꽕怨꾪븯寃 릺뿀떎. 蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗 20 궓瑜 긽쑝濡 뇤삁瑜섍궗瑜 떎뻾븯쑝硫, 씠 以 씉뿰옄씤 寃쎌슦 씉뿰 쟾 썑쓽 뇤삁瑜 蹂솕瑜 痢≪젙븯떎. 洹몃━怨, 紐⑤뱺 씤썝뿉寃 슦슱媛먭낵 뒪듃젅뒪 吏닔瑜 꽕臾 議곗궗븯뿬 씉뿰, 슦슱媛, 洹몃━怨 뇤삁瑜 蹂솕뿉 븳 愿怨꾨 븯뿬 遺꾩꽍븯떎.

옱猷 諛 諛⑸쾿

뿰援 긽

쟾씪遺곷룄 씡궛떆 W븰援먯쓽 옱븰깮쓣 긽쑝濡 떎떆븯떎. 20쓽 嫄닿컯븳 궓 25紐낆쓣 긽쑝濡 븯쑝硫, 몢寃쎈吏덊솚, 빟臾쇰났슜, 떖븳 몢넻씤 긽쓣 寃곌낵뿉꽌 젣쇅븯떎. 씠 以 씉뿰옄씤 8紐낆쓣 긽쑝濡 씉뿰 쟾怨 씉뿰 썑 뇤삁瑜섍궗瑜 떎떆븯떎. 蹂 뿰援щ뒗 긽옄쓽 옄諛쒖쟻씤 李몄뿬瑜 넻븯뿬 씠猷⑥뼱議뚯쑝硫, 2021뀈 7썡 10씪遺꽣 2021뀈 9썡 10씪源뚯 2媛쒖썡 媛 떎떆븯떎. 蹂 뿰援щ뒗 룞쓽븰援 엫긽뿰援(DIRB-202208-HR-E-21) 뿀씫 븯뿉 떆뻾븯떎.

뇤삁瑜 룊媛

븞젙 떆 뇤삁瑜섍궗瑜 븯湲 쟾 솚옄뒗 늻뼱꽌 5遺 媛 쑕떇쓣 痍⑦븯뿬 븞젙긽깭뿉 룎엯 썑 뼇履 愿옄李쎌뿉꽌 寃궗瑜 떎떆븯떎. 씉뿰 썑 뇤삁瑜 룊媛뒗 媛源뚯슫 옣냼뿉꽌 씉뿰 썑 諛붾줈 뇤삁瑜섍궗瑜 긽湲곗 媛숈씠 떎떆븯쑝硫, 삤瑜몄そ 愿옄李쎄궗 썑 떎떆 씉뿰븯怨 쇊履 愿옄李쎄궗瑜 븯떎.

TCD 湲곌퀎뒗 Sonara TCD (EME, Germany)濡 2 MHz probe瑜 씠슜븯떎. Ultrasonic power뒗 10~116 mW/cm2, pulse repetition frequency뒗 2.06~25.02 KHz, burst width뒗 4.5~20.0 sec, depth뒗 40~98 mm濡 븯떎. 쟾뇤룞留(Anterior cerebral artery, ACA), 以묐뇤룞留(Middle cerebral artery, MCA), 썑뇤룞留(Posterior cerebral artery, PCA) 痢〓몢李쎌뿉꽌 痢≪젙븯떎. 媛 痢≪젙媛믪쓽 depth뒗 MCA 46~ 60 mm, ACA 70~75 mm, PCA 70~75 mm, BA 70~90 mm, VA 50~65 mm, ICA 70~85 mm 쟾썑뿉꽌 痢≪젙븯떎. 닔異뺢린삁瑜섏냽룄(Systolic velosity, PVs), 룊洹좏삁瑜섏냽룄(Mean velosity, Vm)뒗 4珥 媛 痢≪젙移섏쓽 룊洹좉컪쑝濡 怨꾩궛릺뿀怨, 諛뺣룞吏닔(Pulsatility index, PI) 빆吏닔(Resistanse index, RI)뒗 븘옒 怨듭떇뿉 洹쇨굅븯뿬 湲곌퀎쟻쑝濡 怨꾩궛릺뿀떎.

빆吏닔(RI)=peak systolic velocityend diastolic velocity/peak systolic velocity諛뺣룞吏닔(PI)=peak systolic velocityend diastolic velocity/mean velocity

슦슱利 룊媛

媛쒓컻씤쓽 슦슱 젙룄瑜 痢≪젙븯湲 쐞븯뿬 슦슱利 寃궗룄援ъ씤 Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) (Jackson-Koku, 2016), Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) (Hedlund and Vieweg, 1979)瑜 痢≪젙븯떎.

BDI: 뵾寃옄 뒪뒪濡 蹂닿퀬븯뒗 諛⑸쾿쑝濡, 떦룄 떊猶곕룄媛 寃젙맂 븳湲뙋 BDI 꽕臾몄瑜 씠슜븯뿬 떆뻾븯떎. 븳湲뙋 BDI뒗 珥 21媛쒖쓽 빆紐⑹쑝濡 씠猷⑥뼱졇 엳怨, 媛 빆紐⑹뿉뒗 슦슱利 젏닔媛 媛옣 궙 0젏뿉꽌 3젏源뚯濡 援ъ꽦릺뼱 엳쑝硫 쟾泥 젏닔뒗 0젏뿉꽌 64젏쓽 踰붿쐞씠떎(Hahn, 1982).

HAM-D: 떆뿕옄 뵾뿕옄쓽 硫대떞 썑 슦슱쓽 利앹긽쓣 젏닔솕븯뒗 媛앷쟻 寃궗 吏몴濡 1960뀈뿉 媛쒕컻맂 The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D)瑜 씠以묒꽌 벑씠 븳湲濡 踰덉뿭븯뿬 떊猶곕룄 떦룄瑜 엯利앺븳 븳援뙋 Hamilton 슦슱利 룊媛 泥숇룄瑜 궗슜븯떎. HAM-D뒗 썝옒 21빆紐⑹씠뿀쑝굹 17빆紐⑹쓽 닔젙蹂몄씠 쁽옱 媛옣 꼸由 궗슜릺怨 엳떎. 슦슱븳 湲곕텇(depressed mood), 二꾩콉媛(feeling of guilt), 옄궡(suicide), 씪怨 솢룞(work and activities), 吏泥(retardation), 珥덉“(agitation), 젙떊쟻 遺덉븞(psychic anxiety), 떊泥댁쟻 遺덉븞(somatic anxiety), 嫄닿컯뿼젮利(hypochondriasis) 벑 9媛쒖쓽 빆紐⑹ 0~4젏쑝濡, 珥덇린 遺덈㈃利(insomnia, early), 以묎린 遺덈㈃利(insomnia, middle), 留먭린 遺덈㈃利(insomnia, late), 쐞옣愿怨 떊泥댁쬆긽(somatic gastrointestinal), 쟾諛섏쟻씤 떊泥댁쬆긽(somatic general), 꽦쟻씤 利앹긽(genital symptoms), 蹂묒떇(insight), 泥댁쨷 媛먯냼(loss of weight) 벑 8媛 빆紐⑹ 0~2젏쑝濡 媛곴컖 梨꾩젏릺뼱 쟾泥 젏닔뒗 0젏뿉꽌 52젏쓽 踰붿쐞 궡뿉 엳寃 맂떎.

넻怨

넻怨꾨텇꽍 뙣궎吏봽濡쒓렇옩씤 SPSS version 15.0 for Window (SPSS, U.S.A)瑜 궗슜븯떎. 씉뿰 쟾썑 鍮꾧탳瑜 쐞빐 Wilcoxon test쓣 떆뻾븯怨, 援곌컙 鍮꾧탳瑜 쐞빐꽌 Kruskal-Wallis test瑜 씠슜븯떎. 씉뿰 쟾썑 蹂솕웾怨 슦슱吏닔쓽 愿怨꾨뒗 Spearman's Correlation쓣 궗슜븯떎. 넻怨꾩쟻 쑀쓽꽦쓽 湲곗 P 媛믪씠 0.05 誘몃쭔 씪 븣 쑀쓽븳 슚怨쇨 엳떎怨 뙋젙븯떎.

寃 怨

뿰援 긽쓽 듅꽦

珥 25紐낆쓽 긽옄쓽 씪諛섏쟻씤 듅꽦뿉 븯뿬 遺꾩꽍븳 寃곌낵, 뿰졊 뿰援ш뎔(n=8)씠 24.7±3.1꽭, 議곌뎔(n=17)씠 22.5±1.2꽭쑝硫, 몢 援 紐⑤몢 吏덈퀝씠 뾾뒗 嫄닿컯븳 긽깭떎. 紐몃Т寃뚯쓽 룊洹좎 궓꽦(n=9) 70.2±8.2 kg씠怨, 뿬꽦(n=16) 48.5±5.3 kg떎.

뇤삁瑜섍궗쓽 듅꽦

紐⑤뱺 긽옄쓽 씉뿰 쟾 뇤삁瑜섍궗쓽 寃곌낵뒗 Table 1뿉꽌 蹂댁뿬以떎. 궎, 紐몃Т寃, 굹씠뿉 뵲瑜 넻怨꾩쟻쑝濡 쑀쓽븳 李⑥씠뒗 蹂댁씠吏 븡븯쑝硫, 꽦蹂꾧낵 씉뿰쑀臾댁뿉 뵲씪 쑀쓽븳 李⑥씠媛 엳쓬쓣 븣 닔 엳뿀떎. 洹몃━怨, 삤瑜몄そ怨 쇊履쎌쓽 뇤삁瑜섍궗쓽 李⑥씠뒗 議댁옱븯吏 븡븯떎.

Results of transcranial doppler in cerebrum

Variables MCA PSV (cm/sec) MCA MV (cm/sec) ACA PSV (cm/sec) ACA MV (cm/sec) PCA PSV (cm/sec) PCA MV (cm/sec)
Group
All subjects 117.5±14.5 70.1±12.8 81.2±10.1 34.2±6.7 69.8±8.3 45.7±4.5
Female 121.5±11.3 71.8±10.9 87.5±11.3 36.3±6.0 71.0±7.9 46.2±6.5
Male 110.8±16.8* 68.7±13.2 77.1±8.4* 33.4±7.4 68.1±9.2 43.2±3.7
Smokers 109.1±20.8 63.0±14.9 73.5±13.8 32.8±8.1 63.6±11.0 42.6±7.3
Non-smokers 129.6±12.7** 73.8±16.8* 88.0±9.7** 35.1±6.2 72.2±7.4** 46.3±3.9
Variables MCA PI MCA RI ACA PI ACA RI PCA PI PCA RI
Group
All subjects 0.84±0.21 0.59±0.17 0.94±0.24 0.64±0.11 0.98±0.24 0.62±0.11
Female 0.81±0.30 0.57±0.14 0.90±0.18 0.60±0.17 0.94±0.22 0.60±0.13
Male 0.86±0.15 0.60±0.18 0.98±0.25 0.67±0.09 1.01±0.26 0.64±0.09
Smokers 0.91±0.28 0.65±0.21 1.04±0.17 0.67±0.18 1.04±0.18 0.66±0.10
Non-smokers 0.80±0.17** 0.56±0.15** 0.89±0.26** 0.62±0.10 0.95±0.25** 0.61±0.13*

*(P<0.05), **(P<0.01) Kruskal-Wallis test was used. All parameters are expressed as mean ± SD. PSV, peak systolic velocity; MV, mean velocity; EDV, end-diastolic velocity; PI, pulsatility index; ACA, the anterior cerebral artery; MCA, the middle cerebral artery; PCA, the posterior cerebral artery



씉뿰 쟾怨 鍮꾧탳븯뿬 씉뿰 썑 以묐뇤룞留(Fig. 1) 쟾뇤룞留(Fig. 2)쓽 蹂솕뒗 쑀쓽븳 李⑥씠瑜 썑뇤룞留(Fig. 3)쓽 蹂솕뒗 닔移섍 븯媛뺥븯뒗 寃쏀뼢쓣 蹂댁떎. Peak velocity, 諛뺣룞吏닔(PI) 빆吏닔(RI)뒗 蹂솕瑜 蹂댁씤 諛섎㈃ mean velocity뒗 以묐뇤룞留κ낵 쟾뇤룞留μ뿉꽌留 넻怨꾩쟻쑝濡 쑀쓽븳 李⑥씠瑜 蹂댁떎(Table 2).

The changes of cerebral blood flow velocity after smoking

Before smoking After smoking Difference (%) P-value
MCA (n=8)
PSV (cm/s) 109.1±20.8 92.3±12.0 -15.3 0.00
MV (cm/s) 63.0±14.9 55.7±8.7 -11.5 0.02
PI 0.91±0.28 0.80±0.21 -12.0 0.03
RI 0.65±0.21 0.54±0.17 -16.9 0.00
ACA (n=8)
PSV (cm/s) 73.5±13.8 65.5±10.9 -10.8 0.01
MV (cm/s) 32.8±8.1 30.1±6.0 -8.2 0.01
PI 1.04±0.17 0.95±0.09 -8.6 0.02
RI 0.67±0.18 0.62±0.12 -7.4 0.04
PCA (n=8)
PSV (cm/s) 63.6±11.0 59.8±8.7 -5.9 0.06
MV (cm/s) 42.6±7.3 41.1±5.0 -3.5 0.15
PI 1.04±0.18 0.99±0.07 -4.8 0.07
RI 0.66±0.10 0.63±0.08 -4.5 0.09

Wilcoxon test was used. All parameters are expressed as mean ± SD. PSV, peak systolic velocity; MV, mean velocity; PI, pulsatility index; RI, resistance index; ACA, the anterior cerebral artery; MCA, the middle cerebral artery; PCA, the posterior cerebral artery


Fig. 1. The change of middle cerebral blood flow velocity after smoking. This is the result of changes in Doppler before and after acute smoking for healthy men and women in their 20s. In comparison with smoking (figure above), the change in the cerebral artery after smoking (below) showed a significant difference.
Fig. 2. The change of anterior cerebral blood flow velocity after smoking. This is the result of changes in Doppler before and after acute smoking for healthy men and women in their 20s. In comparison with smoking (figure above), the change in the cerebral artery after smoking (below) showed a significant difference.
Fig. 3. The change of posterior cerebral blood flow velocity after smoking. This is the result of changes in Doppler before and after acute smoking for healthy men and women in their 20s. In comparison with smoking (figure above), the change in the cerebral artery after smoking (below) showed a tendency to descend.

씉뿰 썑 뇤삁瑜 蹂솕웾怨 슦슱利 룊媛쓽 긽愿愿怨

BDI HAM-D 寃곌낵뒗 媛곴컖 0~64젏, 0~52젏쑝濡 빀궛븯뿬 媛 援곕겮由 鍮꾧탳븯떎. 쟾泥댁쟻쑝濡 젙떊쐞깮씠 뼇샇븳 렪씠硫 뒪듃젅뒪媛 떖븳 긽깭씠嫄곕굹 빟븳 슦슱긽깭뿉 엳뒗 긽옄媛 議댁옱븯떎. 꽦蹂 媛, 굹씠蹂, 씉뿰쑀臾댁뿉 뵲씪 슦슱젏닔뿉뒗 쑀쓽븳 李⑥씠媛 뾾뿀떎(data not shown). 씉뿰 썑 뇤삁瑜섏냽룄쓽 蹂솕웾, 諛뺣룞吏닔, 洹몃━怨 빆吏닔쓽 蹂솕웾 슦슱利 룊媛쓽 젏닔 넻怨꾩쟻쑝濡 쑀쓽븳 긽愿愿怨꾧 엳뿀떎. 듅엳 以묐뇤룞留κ낵 쟾뇤룞留μ뿉꽌쓽 蹂솕웾뿉꽌 諛젒븳 긽愿꽦쓣 蹂댁쑝硫, 썑뇤룞留μ뿉꽌쓽 蹂솕웾 긽愿愿怨꾧 議댁옱븯吏 븡븯떎(Table 3).

The correlation of blood flow change and depression score

Depression scoré correlation coefficient Spearman's P value
MCA (n=8)
PSV -0.58 0.01
MV -0.60 0.02
PI -0.61 0.00
RI -0.54 0.01
ACA (n=8)
PSV -0.81 0.00
MV -0.77 0.00
PI -0.72 0.00
RI -0.82 0.00
PCA (n=8)
PSV -0.32 0.12
MV -0.29 0.09
PI -0.35 0.10
RI -0.45 0.08

PSV, peak systolic velocity; MV, mean velocity; PI, pulsatility index; RI, resistance index; ACA, the anterior cerebral artery; MCA, the middle cerebral artery; PCA, the posterior cerebral artery


怨 李

蹂 뿰援щ뒗 二쇱슂븳 뿰援щ갑踰뺣줎쟻 젒洹쇱 삁瑜섏뿭븰쟻 蹂솕瑜 떎뼇븳 떆媛곸쑝濡 젒洹쇳븯뒗 뿰援ш낵젙뿉꽌 異쒕컻븯쑝硫 씉뿰 썑 삁瑜섎웾 蹂솕 슦슱利앹닔쓽 愿怨꾨 洹쒕챸븯湲 쐞븯뿬 떎뻾릺뿀떎. 寃쎈몢媛 룄뵆윭 珥덉쓬뙆寃궗(TCD)뒗 湲됱꽦湲 뇤寃쎌깋 솚옄뿉寃 넀돺寃 뇤룞留 蹂묐쓽 쐞移, 삁瑜섏뿭븰쟻씤 蹂솕 삁쟾 諛쒖깮쓣 븣 닔 엳寃 븳떎. 뇤룞留μ쓽 삁瑜섏뿭븰쟻씤 蹂솕긽깭瑜 떎떆媛꾩쑝濡 솗씤븯뿬 湲됱꽦湲 移섎즺怨꾪쉷쓣 꽭슦怨 솚옄쓽 삁쑕瑜 삁痢≫븯뒗 뜲룄 룄쓣 以떎. TCD瑜 룊媛븯湲 쐞빐꽌뒗 닔異뺢린삁瑜섏냽룄(PSV), 룊洹좏삁瑜섏냽룄(MV), 빆吏닔(RI), 洹몃━怨, 諛뺣룞吏닔(PI)뿉 븯뿬 씠빐븷 븘슂媛 엳떎. PSV MV뒗 삁愿삊李⑹쓣 媛옣 삁誘쇳븯寃 諛섏쁺븯怨, 삁愿빆쓣 蹂대떎 媛앷쟻쑝濡 몴떆븯湲 쐞빐 PI瑜 궗슜븳떎. PI뒗 뇤븬씠 넂븘吏嫄곕굹 삁愿빆씠 利앷븯硫 PI뒗 利앷븯怨 PI쓽 젙긽踰 쐞뒗 0.6~1.2씠떎. RI뒗 PI 留덉갔媛吏濡 삁愿빆꽦怨 삁愿삁愿삊李 쑀臾 뙋떒쓣 쐞븯뿬 궗슜맂떎.

떎뿕긽옄쓽 젇 뿰졊씠 썝씤씤吏 쟾諛섏쟻쑝濡 뇤삁瑜섏냽룄媛 룊洹좎튂뿉 鍮꾪븯뿬 鍮좊Ⅸ 寃쏀뼢씠 엳뿀떎(Table 1). 궓 꽦蹂 媛 뇤삁瑜섏냽룄 李⑥씠뒗 洹쇱냼븯怨 議댁옱븯쑝굹 MV뿉꽌 李⑥씠媛 諛쒖깮븯吏 븡븘 엫긽쟻 쓽쓽뒗 겕吏 븡뒗 렪씠떎. 씉뿰옄 鍮꾪씉뿰옄 궗씠쓽 뇤삁瑜섏냽룄 李⑥씠뒗 겙 렪씠硫 씠뒗 留뚯꽦씉뿰옄뱾쓽 삁瑜섏냽룄媛 鍮꾪씉뿰씤뿉 鍮꾪빐 뇤삁瑜섏냽룄媛 利앷릺뼱 엳떎뒗 뿰援щ뱾쓽 寃곌낵 遺빀븳떎怨 븷 닔 엳떎(Yang et al., 2000; Barutcu et al., 2004).

씉뿰 썑 삁瑜섏냽룄뒗 쟾 뿰援щ뱾怨 鍮꾧탳븯뿬룄 洹뱀쟻씤 蹂솕瑜 蹂댁떎(Table 2). 蹂 뿰援щ뒗 SPECT 벑쓣 씠슜븳 쁺긽옣鍮꾩뿉 쓽븳 삁瑜섏냽룄 痢≪젙 뿰援ш껐怨쇰뱾(Yang et al., 2008; Cosgrove et al., 2015)怨 鍮꾧탳븯硫 씉뿰 吏곹썑 TCD 씤옄뱾쓽 蹂룞룺씠 빟 5~10% 젙룄 넂쓬쓣 븣 닔 엳떎. 씠뒗 떎瑜 뿰援щ뱾怨 떖由 吏㏃ 씉뿰 썑 씠룞룞꽑怨 鍮좊Ⅸ TCD 痢≪젙쑝濡 씉뿰 吏곹썑 쁺뼢쓣 옒 諛섏쁺븳 寃곌낵씪怨 궗猷뚮맂떎. 씉뿰 썑 뇤삁瑜 蹂솕뒗 MCA ACA뿉꽌 겕寃 븯媛뺥븯쑝硫 씠윭븳 삁瑜섑쓲由꾩씠 씉뿰 썑 빟媛꾩쓽 '硫랁븿'쓣 쑀諛쒗븯뒗 썝씤씠씪怨 븣젮졇 엳떎(Vafaee et al., 2015). 떎젣 씠윭븳 븯媛뺢꼍뼢 移섎ℓ솚옄굹 뇤議몄쬆 솚옄뿉寃 떖媛곹븳 쐞뿕씤옄씠떎(Rogers et al., 1986). 吏㏃ 떆媛 썑뿉 뇤삁瑜섎뒗 젙긽쑝濡 蹂듦븯硫 留뚯꽦씉뿰옄뿉 寃쎌슦 삤엳젮 뇤삁瑜섎웾뿉 蹂솕瑜 二쇱뼱꽌 뇤삁瑜섏냽룄瑜 利앷떆궓떎. 씠윭븳 삁瑜섏냽룄쓽 냽룄쓽 蹂솕뒗 삁瑜섏뿭룞븰쟻 엯옣뿉꽌 삁븬쓽 蹂솕, 뿭瑜섏 궃瑜 벑쓣 씪쑝궎湲 돩슦硫, 씤泥 궡 媛옣 蹂듭옟븳 옣湲 以 븯굹씤 뇤뿉 깮由ъ쟻씤 蹂솕瑜 씪쑝궗 닔 엳떎怨 븳떎(Paperwalla et al., 2004; Oksala et al., 2007).

씉뿰 썑 삁瑜섎웾 蹂솕뿉 븳 뿰援щ뒗 二쇰줈 떒룆쑝濡 蹂닿퀬릺硫 떎瑜 씤옄뱾怨쇱쓽 긽愿꽦씠굹 쉶洹꽦뿉 븳 뿰援щ뒗 쁽옱源뚯뒗 遺議깊븳 떎젙씠떎. 蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌 씉뿰 썑 삁瑜섎웾 蹂솕뒗 슦슱利 젏닔 긽愿愿怨꾨 蹂댁쑝硫(Table 3), 슦슱利 젏닔 쓬쓽 긽愿愿怨꾧 엳뿀떎. 듅엳 ACA쓽 삁瑜섎웾 蹂솕 媛뺥븳 긽愿愿怨꾧 엳뿀쑝硫, 씠뒗 슦슱利앹긽씠 엳뒗 솚옄뿉꽌 쟾몢뿽뿉 怨듦툒릺뒗 삁븸웾씠 젙긽씤뿉 鍮꾪븯뿬 쟻떎뒗 怨쇨굅 뿰援ъ 遺빀릺뒗 硫댁씠 엳떎(Lesser et al., 1994). 蹂 뿰援щ뒗 쟾泥 뵾寃옄닔 씉뿰옄쓽 닔媛 遺議깊븯뿬 넻怨꾩쟻쑝濡 겕寃 쓽誘멸 엳떎怨 븷 닔뒗 뾾吏留, 뵾寃옄쓽 닔瑜 뒛젮꽌 洹쒕え 엫긽떆뿕쓣 븯뒗 寃껋씠 뼢썑 씠 뿰援ъ쓽 怨쇱젣씠떎.

씉뿰 썑 삁瑜섎웾 蹂솕뒗 遺꾨챸엳 遺젙쟻씤 쁺뼢쓣 二쇰뒗 寃껋 二쇱쓽 궗떎씠떎. 洹몃━怨, 씉뿰씠 슦슱利앹꽭瑜 떖솕븳떎뒗 뿰援щ 怨좊젮븯뿬 蹂 븣 씉뿰怨 슦슱利앹 꽌濡 遺젙쟻씤 쁺뼢쓣 二쇰뒗 씤옄뱾엫쓣 븣 닔 엳뿀떎. 빆긽 湲띿젙쟻씤 옄꽭 湲덉뿰留뚯씠 삱諛붾Ⅸ 뇤 嫄닿컯쓣 吏궎湲 쐞븳 솗룄씪怨 깮媛곹븳떎.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This project was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (2022R1F1A1066041).

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.

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