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Evaluation of Microbiological Contamination of Water Purifiers at Two Universities in Chungcheong Region
Biomed Sci Letters 2023;29:256-262
Published online December 31, 2023;  https://doi.org/10.15616/BSL.2023.29.4.256
© 2023 The Korean Society For Biomedical Laboratory Sciences.

Jin Young Yun†,*

Department of Clinical Laboratory Science, Chungbuk Health & Science University, Cheongju 28150, Korea
Correspondence to: Jin Young Yun. Department of Clinical Laboratory Science, Chungbuk Health & Science University, Cheongju 28150, Korea.
Tel: +82-43-210-8311, Fax: +82-43-210-8340, e-mail: uio43@chsu.ac.kr
*Professor.
Received November 13, 2023; Revised November 23, 2023; Accepted November 23, 2023.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
 Abstract
The purpose of this study is to investigate microbial contamination in water purifiers from two universities (A and B) in Chungcheong region and to evaluate about the harmfulness of the isolated bacteria to the human. The degree of microbiological contamination of six water purifiers at university A was investigated three times from July 2018 to September 2019, and nine water purifiers at university B were investigated in 2023. The isolated bacteria were biochemically identified using an API kit and Vitek-2 system, and then the bacteria were identified to the species level using MALDI-TOF MS. In addition, the possibility of human infection of the isolated bacteria was evaluated through a literature search. In July 2018 and September 2019, the number of bacteria isolated inside the faucet was below the acceptable standard for hot water, but exceed for cold water in all water purifiers. In January and September 2019, bacteria exceeding the acceptable standards were isolated nine times from the cold water of six water purifies (a total of 12 water purifiers). Bacteria identified by MALDI-TOF MS included anaerobic bacteria (Clostridium novyi, Clostridium themopalmarium etc.), Gram-positive bacilli (Microbacterium testaceum, Arthrobacter woluwensis etc.), and Gram-negative bacilli (Acinetobacter nosocomialis, Comamonas kerstersii etc.), which are difficult identify by biochemical methods. In conclusion, bacteria exceeding the acceptable standard were isolated from the cold water of most of the water purifiers. Most of the isolated bacteria were low-pathogenic bacteria from natural environment, but opportunistic bacteria that can cause infection in humans were also isolated from some water purifiers.
Keywords : Water purifier, Microbial Contamination, Identification, Pathogenic bacteria
꽌 濡

젙닔湲 궗슜쓽 利앷 愿由 냼濡 씤븯뿬 誘몄깮臾 삤뿼 臾몄젣媛 利앷릺怨 엳쑝硫, 듅엳 젙닔湲 泥냼 諛 븘꽣 援먰솚 二쇨린, 궗슜 鍮덈룄 諛 궗슜웾 벑뿉 뵲씪 젙닔湲 臾쇱뿉꽌 誘몄깮臾 利앹떇씠 珥덈옒맆 닔 엳뼱 씠뿉 븳 怨듭쨷蹂닿굔븰쟻 臾몄젣媛 빞湲곕릺怨 엳떎(Kim et al., 2003; Won et al., 2010). 젙닔湲곕뒗 癒밸뒗 臾 愿由щ쾿뿉 뵲씪 愿由щ릺怨 엳吏留 誘몄깮臾 寃궗뿉 븳 洹쒖젙 뾾뼱 젙닔湲 愿由ы쉶궗뿉 쐞긽븯뿬 愿由щ릺怨 엳떎. 젙닔湲곕뒗 二쇨린쟻쑝濡 泥냼릺怨 엳吏留 誘몄깮臾 삤뿼 떎뼇븳 쇅遺 솚寃쎄낵 愿젴씠 엳쑝誘濡 誘몄깮臾 삤뿼뿉 痍⑥빟븳 솚寃쎌씠씪怨 蹂 닔 엳떎(Ministry of Environment, 2019).

2011~2012뀈 룞븞 吏덈퀝愿由щ낯遺뿉꽌 議곗궗맂 援궡 닔씤꽦 떇뭹留ㅺ컻吏덊솚쓽 吏묐떒諛쒖깮쁽솴뿉꽌 蹂묒썝꽦옣洹좎뿉 쓽븳 닔씤꽦 떇뭹留ㅺ컻吏덊솚쓽 諛쒖깮嫄댁닔媛 70嫄댁쑝濡 쟾泥댁쓽 24.1%瑜 李⑥븯떎. 癒밸뒗 臾 닔吏덇궗 빆紐 以 씪諛 꽭洹좎쑝濡 痢≪젙릺뒗 꽭洹좎쓽 씪遺뒗 湲고쉶媛먯뿼 蹂묒썝泥댁씪 媛뒫꽦씠 엳떎. 씠윭븳 솚寃쎌뿉꽌 利앹떇븳 꽭洹좊뱾 怨듭쨷蹂닿굔븰쟻 愿젏뿉꽌 留ㅼ슦 以묒슂븯湲 븣臾몄뿉 젙닔湲곗쓽 삩닔 깋닔뿉 븳 誘몄깮臾쇳븰쟻 닔吏덇궗뿉 븳 떎뼇븳 뿰援ш 씠猷⑥뼱議뚮떎(Burlingame et al., 1984; Armas and Sutherland, 1999).

洹몃윭굹 젙닔湲곗쓽 삩닔(hot water), 깋닔(cold water) 닔룄瑗吏 궡遺濡 遺꾨쪟븯뿬 誘몄깮臾 삤뿼뿉 븳 뿰援щ뒗 嫄곗쓽 뾾떎. 씠뿉 蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗 씪媛 븰뿉 꽕移섎맂 젙닔湲곗쓽 誘몄깮臾 삤뿼 긽깭 꽭洹좏븰쟻 듅꽦쓣 鍮꾧탳븯쑝硫 젙닔湲 닔룄瑗吏 궡遺뿉꽌쓽 삤뿼씠 쓬슜닔뿉룄 쁺뼢쓣 誘몄튌 닔 엳뒗吏뿉 빐꽌룄 議곗궗븯떎. 삉븳 씪媛 븰뿉꽌쓽 젙닔湲 誘몄깮臾 遺꾪룷 鍮꾧탳瑜 넻빐 몢 븰쓽 젙닔湲곗뿉꽌 怨듯넻쟻쑝濡 愿李곕릺뒗 誘몄깮臾쇱뿉 븳 寃異 썝씤쓣 뙆븙븯떎. 씠윭븳 議곗궗瑜 넗濡 뼢썑 젙닔湲 愿由ъ뿉 븘슂븳 쐞깮 긽깭 븞쟾꽦쓣 솗蹂댄븯怨 젙닔湲곗뿉 쓽븳 誘몄깮臾 媛먯뿼쓣 삁諛⑺븷 닔 엳뒗 諛⑹븞쓣 젣떆븯怨좎옄 븯떎.

옱猷 諛 諛⑸쾿

뿰援щ긽

2018뀈遺꽣 2019뀈源뚯 3쉶뿉 嫄몄퀜 A 븰쓽 6媛 젙닔湲 삩닔 깋닔쓽 닔룄瑗吏 궡遺뿉꽌 硫대큺쓣 씠슜븯뿬 寃泥대 梨꾩랬븯뿬 諛곗뿉 젒醫낇븯怨, 씪遺뿉꽌뒗 쓲瑜대뒗 臾쇱쓣 吏곸젒 梨꾩랬븯뿬 諛곗떦 1 mL뵫 諛곗뼇븯떎. 씠썑 2023뀈 B븰쓽 젙닔湲곗 鍮꾧탳븯湲 쐞빐 寃泥대 梨꾩랬븯뿬 諛곗뼇븯떎.

誘몄깮臾쇱쓽 諛곗뼇 諛 꽭洹좎쓽 솗씤

닔룄瑗吏쓽 궡遺뿉꽌 硫대큺쑝濡 梨꾩랬븳 寃泥대뒗 삁븸븳泥 諛곗(Blood agar plate, BAP) MacConkey 諛곗뿉 젒醫낇븯쑝硫 48떆媛 룞븞 諛곗뼇븳 썑 옄 吏묐씫 닔瑜 愿李고븯떎. 寃泥댁쓽 洹좎<뒗 諛곗뿉 삎꽦맂 吏묐씫 닔瑜 湲곗쑝濡 븯떎(Colony forming unit/plate, CFU/P). 젙닔湲곗쓽 쓲瑜대뒗 臾쇱뿉꽌 梨꾩랬븳 寃泥 1 mL瑜 BAP MacConkey 諛곗뿉 遺꾩< 썑 諛곗瑜 48떆媛 룞븞 諛곗뼇븳 썑 옄 洹 吏묐씫 닔瑜 愿李고븯떎. 洹좎닔뒗 mL 떦 옄 吏묐씫 닔濡 븯떎(CFU/mL). 洹 솗씤쓣 쐞빐 諛곗뿉꽌 옄 吏묐씫쓣 API kit (bioM챕rieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France), VITKE II compact system (bioM챕rieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France), matrix assistant laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS, Bruker, Daltonic, Bremen, Germany)瑜 씠슜븯뿬 洹좎쓣 솗씤븯떎. 2018뀈 7썡 諛 2019뀈 1썡뿉 遺꾨━맂 꽭洹좎쓣 洹몃엺뿼깋븯뿬 뼇꽦 꽭洹좉낵 쓬꽦 꽭洹좎쑝濡 遺꾨━븳 썑 洹몃엺뼇꽦洹좎 API Staph, API 20Strep, API Coryne濡, 쓬꽦洹좎 API 20E 諛 API NE濡 옞젙쟻쑝濡 솗씤븯떎. 洹좊챸씠 솗씤릺吏 븡 꽭洹좎 VITEK II compact system瑜 씠슜븯떎. 2019뀈 9썡 諛 2023뀈 9썡뿉 遺꾨━맂 꽭洹좎쓽 솗씤 MALDI-TOF MS 옣鍮꾨 씠슜븯쑝硫 MALDI-Biotyper 2.0 software (Bruker, Daltonic, Bremen, Germany)瑜 넻빐 솗씤븯떎. MALDI-Biotyper뒗 寃곌낵移섍 2.0 씠긽씪 寃쎌슦 醫(species) 떒怨꾧퉴吏, 2.0~1.7源뚯뒗 냽(genus) 떒怨 源뚯, 1.7 誘몃쭔씪 寃쎌슦 떊猶곗꽦씠 뾾뒗 寃껋쑝濡 媛꾩<븯떎. 遺꾨━맂 洹좎 Pubmed (ttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) 臾명뿄 寃깋쓣 넻빐 씤泥댁뿉꽌 媛먯뿼 궗濡媛 엳뿀뒗吏 벑쓣 議곗궗븯떎.

寃 怨

젙닔湲 닔룄瑗吏 궡遺 諛 臾쇱뿉꽌 遺꾨━맂 꽭洹 닔

2018뀈 7썡怨 2019뀈 9썡뿉 A븰뿉 꽕移섎릺뼱 엳뒗 6媛쒖쓽 젙닔湲 삩닔 깋닔쓽 닔룄瑗吏 궡遺瑜 硫멸퇏 硫대큺쑝濡 臾몄쭏윭꽌 寃異쒕맂 꽭洹좎쓽 닔뒗 Table 1怨 媛숇떎. 6媛 젙닔湲 삩닔 닔룄瑗吏 궡遺쓽 룊洹 꽭洹 닔뒗 媛곴컖 8.83 (0~32) 0 (0) CFUs/Plate쓽 踰붿쐞쑝硫, 깋닔 닔룄瑗吏 궡遺쓽 룊洹 꽭洹 닔뒗 943.0 (0~886) 389.83 (0~448) CFUs/Plate떎(Table 1).

Number of microorganisms isolated from the hot and cold faucets of six water purifiers in 2018 and 2019 years

Water purifiers Gram reaction Number of microorganisms /Plate
JUL 2018 SEP 2019
H C H C
A GP 32 614 0 134
GN 0 0 0 96
B GP 0 886 0 252
GN 0 1 0 251
C GP 0 385 0 0
GN 0 497 0 448
D GP 0 761 0 0
GN 0 0 0 321
E GP 12 718 0 346
GN 0 629 0 372
F GP 9 43 0 119
GN 0 525 0 0
Total 53 5,059 0 2,339
Mean 8.83 843.0 0 389.83

Abbreviations: JUL, July; SEP, September; GP, gram positive; GN, gram negative; H, hot water; C, cold water

Range and mean of temperature of cold and hot water was 5.37꼦 (4~9꼦) and 76꼦 (70~81꼦)



2019뀈 1썡怨 9썡뿉 A븰뿉 꽕移섎릺뼱 엳뒗 6媛 젙닔湲곗쓽 쓲瑜대뒗 삩닔 깋닔뿉꽌 諛쏆 臾쇱뿉꽌 諛곗뼇븳 꽭洹좎쓽 닔뒗 Table 2 媛숇떎. 媛 6媛 젙닔湲 삩닔뿉꽌 寃異쒕맂 룊洹 꽭洹 닔뒗 0 CFU/mL 0.17 (0~1) CFUs/mL쓽 踰붿쐞쑝硫, 깋닔뿉꽌뒗 룊洹 219.33 (0~320) CFUs/mL 173.5 (0~387) CFU/mL쓽 꽭洹좎씠 遺꾨━릺뿀떎(Table 2). 6媛 젙닔湲곕 1뀈뿉 媛곴컖 2쉶 痢≪젙븯쓣 븣(깋닔 12쉶) 9쉶뿉꽌 癒밸뒗 臾 닔吏 湲곗(씪諛 꽭洹 뿀슜 湲곗: 100媛 씠븯/1 mL)쓣 珥덇낵븯뒗 씪諛 꽭洹 닔媛 遺꾨━릺뿀떎.

Number of microorganisms isolated from the hot and cold water of six water purifiers in January and September 2019 year

Water purifiers Gram reaction Number of microorganisms/mL
JAN 2019 SEP 2019
H C H C
A GP 0 20 0 0
GN 0 256 0 89
B GP 0 320 1 0
GN 0 0 0 164
C GP 0 272 0 0
GN 0 169 0 387
D GP 0 88 0 0
GN 0 0 0 218
E GP 0 0 0 0
GN 0 0 0 183
F GP 0 191 0 0
GN 0 0 0 0
Total 0 1,316 0 1,041
Mean 0 219.33 0.17 173.50

Abbreviations: JAN, January; SEP, September; GP, gram positive; GN, gram negative; H, hot water; C, cold water

Range and mean of temperature of cold and hot water was 5.37꼦 (4~9꼦) and 76꼦 (70~81꼦)



2023뀈 9썡 B븰쓽 9媛쒖쓽 젙닔湲곗쓽 닔룄瑗吏 궡遺 쓲瑜대뒗 臾쇱뿉꽌 遺꾨━맂 씪諛섏꽭洹좎쓽 닔뒗 Table 3怨 媛숇떎. 삩닔뿉꽌뒗 궡遺 諛 쓲瑜대뒗 臾쇱뿉꽌 0 CFU/Plate 2.56 CFU/mL쓽 씪諛 꽭洹좎씠 遺꾨━릺뿀쑝굹 깋닔쓽 寃쎌슦 궡遺 쓲瑜대뒗 臾쇱뿉꽌 91.44 (0~274) CFU/Plate 50.22 (0~ 158) CFU/mL쓽 씪諛섏꽭洹좎씠 遺꾨━릺뿀떎(Table 3). 삩닔뿉꽌뒗 10媛 誘몃쭔쓽 씪諛 꽭洹좎씠 遺꾨━릺뿀쑝굹 깋닔뿉꽌뒗 2媛쒖쓽 젙닔湲곗뿉꽌 癒밸뒗 臾 닔吏 湲곗쓣 珥덇낵븯뒗 씠諛 꽭洹 닔媛 遺꾨━릺뿀떎.

Number of microorganisms isolated from the faucets and water of nine water purifiers in September 2023 year

Water purifiers Gram reaction No of microorganisms/Plate No of microorganisms/mL
FAUCET WATER
H C H C
G GP 0 263 10 158
GN 0 0 0 0
H GP 0 40 5 8
GN 0 0 0 0
I GP 0 274 4 132
GN 0 0 0 0
J GP 0 23 4 6
GN 0 0 0 0
K GP 0 2 0 20
GN 0 0 0 0
L GP 0 0 0 10
GN 0 0 0 0
M GP 0 0 0 0
GN 0 0 0 0
N GP 0 0 0 0
GN 0 0 0 0
O GP 0 221 0 118
GN 0 0 0 0
Total 0 823 23 452
Mean 0 91.44 2.56 50.22

Abbreviations: GP, gram positive; GN, gram negative; H, hot water; C, cold water



젙닔湲곗뿉꽌 遺꾨━맂 꽭洹좎쓽 솗씤

2018뀈 1썡 젙닔湲곗뿉꽌 遺꾨━맂 洹좎쓣 API kit瑜 씠슜븯뿬 솗씤븯쓣 븣 洹몃엺뼇꽦洹좎 Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus spp., coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS), Corynebacterium spp., Micrococcus spp. 벑 6醫낆씠 遺꾨━릺뿀怨, 洹몃엺쓬꽦洹좎 Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter pitti, Brevundimonas aurantiaca, glucose nonfermenting gram negative bacilli (GNFB), Pantoea septica 벑 5醫낆씠 遺꾨━릺뿀떎(Table 4).

Results of identification of isolates from six water purifiers in July 2018 and January 2019 by API kit and Vitek system

Water purifiers Gram reaction Identification of microorganisms
Jul 2018 by API kit Jan 2019 by Vitek
Hot water GP Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus Bacillus cereus
GN ND ND
Cold water GP Arthrobacter spp, Bacillus spp, coagulase negative Staphylococci, Corynebacterium spp., Micrococcus spp. Bacillus cereus, Bacillus spp., coagulase negative Staphylococci, Micrococcus spp.
GN Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter pitti, Brevundimonas aurantiaca, GNFB, Pantoea septica Acinetobacter baumannii, GNFB, Proteus penneri, Roseomonas spp., Sphingomonas paucimobilis

Abbreviations: GP, gram positive; GN, gram negative; ND, not detected; GNFB, gram negative nonfermenting bacilli



2019뀈 1썡 젙닔湲곗뿉꽌 遺꾨━맂 洹좎쓣 Vitek system쑝濡 솗씤븳 寃곌낵, 洹몃엺뼇꽦洹좎 Bacillus cereus, Bacillus spp., CNS, Micrococcus spp. 벑 4醫낆씠 遺꾨━릺뿀怨, 洹몃엺쓬꽦洹좎 Acinetobacter baumannii, GNFB, Proteus penneri, Roseomonas spp., Sphingomonas paucimobilis 벑 5醫낆씠 遺꾨━릺뿀떎(Table 4).

2019뀈 9썡 諛 2023뀈 9썡뿉 遺꾨━맂 洹좊뱾 깮솕븰쟻 諛⑸쾿쑝濡 솗씤씠 뼱젮슫 洹좎씠 留롪린 븣臾몄뿉 씠瑜 洹밸났븯湲 쐞빐 MALDI-TOF MS濡 洹좎쓽 솗씤쓣 떆룄븯떎.

몢 湲곌쓽 젙닔湲 以 삩닔뿉꽌뒗 깋닔蹂대떎 留ㅼ슦 쟻 닔쓽 洹좎씠 遺꾨━릺뿀뒗뜲, 洹몃엺뼇꽦 媛꾧퇏씤 Bacillus spp.媛 몢 湲곌쓽 삩닔 젙닔湲곗뿉꽌 遺꾨━릺뿀떎. 遺遺꾩쓽 洹좎 깋닔뿉꽌 遺꾨━릺뿀쑝硫, 몢 湲곌뿉꽌 떎뼇븳 洹몃엺뼇꽦 諛 쓬꽦洹좎씠 遺꾨━릺뿀뒗뜲, Bacillus spp. Staphylococcus warneri (CNS) 젙룄留 쑀궗븯寃 遺꾨━릺뿀怨, 꽌濡 떎瑜 떎뼇븳 洹좎씠 遺꾨━릺뿀떎(Table 5). 洹몃엺뼇꽦洹좎 깮솕쟻 諛⑸쾿쑝濡 솗씤씠 뼱젮슫 삉湲곗꽦洹(Clostridium novyi, Clostridium themopalmarium)怨 洹몃엺뼇꽦 媛꾧퇏(Microbacterium lacticum, Microbacterium testaceum, Pseudoathrobacter polychromogenes, Tsukamurella paurometabola, Arthrobacter woluwensis, Bacilus infantis)씠 異붽濡 遺꾨━릺뿀떎. 洹몃━怨 洹몃엺쓬꽦洹좊룄 깮솕븰쟻쑝濡 솗씤씠 뼱졄嫄곕굹 泥쒖쿇엳 옄씪뒗 洹몃엺쓬꽦媛꾧퇏(Acidovorax temperans, Acinetobacter nosocomialis, Acinetobacter tanoii, Aquinocola tertiaricabonis, Brevundimonas aurantiaca, Brevundimonas albigilva, Comamonas kerstersii, Delftia acidovorans, Hydrogenophaga flava, Pseudomonas alcaligenes, P. Mexicana, Spingomonas acrolata, S. panni)뱾씠 遺꾨━릺뿀떎(Table 5). 씠뱾 洹몃엺뼇꽦洹좉낵 쓬꽦洹좎 遺遺 옄뿰怨꾩쓽 넗뼇怨 臾쇱뿉꽌 遺꾨━릺뒗 洹좎쑝濡 씪遺 洹좎 뱶臾쇨쾶 궗엺뿉꽌 媛먯뿼쓣 씪쑝궎뒗 湲고쉶媛먯뿼洹좊뱾씠 룷븿릺뼱 엳뿀떎. 븳렪 Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia 벑 癒밸뒗 臾 닔吏 湲곗뿉꽌 遺꾨━릺뼱꽌뒗 븞 릺뒗 洹좎 遺꾨━릺吏 븡븯떎.

Results of identification of isolates from water purifiers in September 2019 and September 2023 by MALDI-TOF MS

Water purifiers Gram reaction Identification of microorganisms
Sep 2019 Sep 2023
Hot water GP Bacillus spp. Bacillus spp.
GN ND Moraxella spp.
Cold water GP Clostridium novyi, Clostridium themopalmarium, Glutamicibacter bergerei, Microbacterium lacticum, Microbacterium testaceum, Pseudoathrobacter polychromogenes, Staphylococcus warneri, Tsukamurella paurometabola Arthrobacter woluwensis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus infantis, Bacillus spp., Staphylococcus capitis, Staphylococcus warneri
GN Acidovorax temperans, Acinetobacter nosocomialis, Acinetobacter tandoii, Aquinocola tertiaricarbonis, Brevundimonas aurantiaca, Brevundimonas albigilva, Comamonas kerstersii, Delftia acidovorans, Hydrogenophaga flava, Pseudomonas alcaligenes, Pseudomonas Mexicana, Spingomonas acrolata, Spingomonas panni Brevundimonas aurantiaca, Comamonas testosteroini

Abbreviations: GP, gram positive; GN, gram negative; ND, not detected


怨 李

A븰쓽 6媛 젙닔湲곗뿉꽌 2뀈媛 3쉶쓽 꽭洹 諛곗뼇쓣 븯쑝硫 씠썑 B븰쓽 9媛쒖쓽 젙닔湲곗뿉꽌 꽭洹 諛곗뼇쓣 븯뿬 遺꾨━맂 꽭洹 닔 洹좎쓣 솗씤븯떎. 삁긽븳 濡 삩닔蹂대떎 깋닔뿉꽌 留롮 꽭洹좎씠 遺꾨━릺뿀쑝硫, 닔룄瑗吏 궡遺뿉꽌 쓲瑜대뒗 臾쇰낫떎 留롮 꽭洹좎씠 遺꾨━릺뒗 寃쏀뼢쓣 蹂댁떎. 삩닔뿉꽌뒗 癒밸뒗 臾쇱뿉꽌 씪諛 꽭洹 닔뒗 뿀슜踰붿쐞 씠궡吏留 깋닔쓽 寃쎌슦 遺遺꾩뿉꽌 뿀슜踰붿쐞瑜 珥덇낵븳 꽭洹좎씠 遺꾨━릺뿀떎. 鍮꾧탳 긽씤 븰뿉꽌룄 鍮덈룄뒗 쟻吏留 癒밸뒗 臾 뿀슜 湲곗쓣 珥덇낵븯뒗 젙닔湲곌 엳뿀떎. 遺꾨━맂 꽭洹좎 遺遺 넗뼇씠굹 옄뿰솚寃쎌쓽 臾쇱뿉꽌 議댁옱븯뒗 洹좊뱾씠뿀쑝굹 씪遺 洹좊뱾 硫댁뿭씠 뼲젣맂 솚옄뿉꽌 媛먯뿼쓣 씪쑝궗 닔 엳뒗 洹좊뱾룄 遺꾨━릺뿀떎. 떎뼇븳 洹몃엺뼇꽦 諛 쓬꽦 꽭洹좎씠 遺꾨━릺뿀뒗뜲, 씪遺 洹몃엺뼇꽦 媛꾧퇏, 삉湲곗꽦 꽭洹 諛 룷룄떦 鍮꾨컻슚 洹몃엺쓬꽦 媛꾧퇏쓽 寃쎌슦뿉 깮솕쟻 솗씤 諛⑸쾿쑝濡쒕뒗 솗씤뿉 븳怨꾧 엳뿀쑝굹 MALDI-TOF MS쓽 寃쎌슦뒗 떊猶고븷 留뚰븳 닔以쑝濡 떎뼇븳 꽭洹좎쓣 솗씤븷 닔 엳뿀떎.

2018뀈 7썡怨 2019뀈 9썡 닔룄瑗吏 궡遺瑜 硫대큺쑝濡 梨꾩랬븯뿬 諛곗뼇븳 寃곌낵, 삩닔뿉꽌뒗 븯굹쓽 諛곗뿉꽌 32媛 씠븯쓽 洹좎씠 옄옄吏留 깋닔뿉꽌뒗 6媛 젙닔湲 紐⑤몢뿉꽌 癒밸뒗 臾 닔吏 湲곗쓣 珥덇낵븯뒗 꽭洹좎씠 遺꾨━릺뿀떎(룊洹 843/Plate, 389/Plate) (Table 1). 利 젙닔湲곗쓽 깋닔媛 삩닔蹂대떎 寃異쒕맂 꽭洹 닔媛 뜑 넂 寃껋쓣 솗씤븷 닔 엳뿀쑝硫 씠뒗 삩닔뿉꽌쓽 꽭洹 닔뒗 룊洹 吏묐씫 닔瑜 湲곗쑝濡 깋닔蹂대떎 쟻떎뒗 꽑뻾 뿰援ъ 씪移섑븯떎(Lee, 2008). 씠踰 뿰援ъ뿉꽌룄 삩닔쓽 룊洹 삩룄뒗 76꼦(踰붿쐞: 70~81꼦)쑝硫 洹좎쓽 깮議댁씠 뼱젮슫 삩룄떎. 븳렪 7썡뿉 遺꾨━맂 洹 닔(843/HPC)媛 9썡뿉 遺꾨━맂 洹 닔(389/HPC)蹂대떎 2諛 씠긽씠뿀뒗뜲 씠뒗 湲곗삩怨 뒿룄媛 넂븘 꽭洹좎쓽 利앹떇뿉 뜑 醫뗭 솚寃쎌쓣 젣怨듯븯湲 븣臾몄씠씪 깮媛곷맂떎(2018뀈 7썡/2019뀈 9썡 룊洹좉린삩 諛 媛뺤닔웾: 27.9꼦(24~32꼦)/22.5꼦 (18~26.8꼦) 諛 185.6 mm/139.8 mm). 뵲씪꽌 湲곗삩씠 넂怨 뒿룄媛 넂 뿬由꾩쿋뿉 뜑슧 옄二 닔룄瑗吏瑜 愿由ы빐빞 릺硫 삩닔蹂대떎 깋닔쓽 닔룄瑗吏瑜 뜑슧뜑 泥좎엳 愿由ы븷 븘슂媛 엳떎怨 궗猷뚮맂떎. 븳렪 2019뀈 1썡(룊洹 湲곗삩 0꼦 (-4.8~5.7꼦)怨 9썡쓽 鍮꾧탳뿉꽌뒗 李⑥씠媛 嫄곗쓽 뾾쑝誘濡 湲곗삩怨 뒿룄쓽 李⑥씠肉먮쭔 븘땲씪 愿由 二쇨린 諛 젙룄쓽 李⑥씠룄 遺꾨챸 媛숈씠 議댁옱븷 寃껋씠떎. 援궡쓽 遺遺 吏諛⑹옄移 떒泥댁뿉꽌 癒밸뒗 臾 닔吏덉쓽 씪諛섏꽭洹 뿀슜 湲곗 臾 1 mL떦 100媛 씠븯쓽 꽭洹좎씠떎[솚寃쎈 踰뺣졊, 癒밸뒗 臾 愿由щ쾿 떆뻾洹쒖튃 35議 諛 癒밸뒗 臾 닔吏 湲곗 諛 寃궗 벑뿉 愿븳 洹쒖튃]. 6媛쒖쓽 젙닔湲곗뿉꽌 梨꾩랬븳 1 mL쓽 臾쇱쓣 吏곸젒 諛곗뿉 젒醫낇븯뿬 諛곗뼇븳 寃곌낵 2019뀈 1썡怨 9썡뿉 媛곴컖 6媛쒖쓽 젙닔湲 以 4媛쒖쓽 젙닔湲곗뿉꽌 湲곗쓣 珥덇낵븯뒗 꽭洹좎씠 遺꾨━릺뿀떎(Table 2). 洹몃━怨 삩닔뿉꽌뒗 洹좎씠 옄씪吏 븡븯怨 깋닔뿉꽌 湲곗쓣 珥덇낵븯떎. 2023뀈 愿由 긽깭媛 떎瑜 湲곌쓽 젙닔湲곗 鍮꾧탳븯怨 쐞빐 B븰쓽 젙닔湲곕 寃궗븯뒗뜲 9媛쒖쓽 젙닔湲 以 3媛쒖뿉꽌 湲곗쓣 珥덇낵븯떎(Table 3). 젙닔湲곗뿉꽌 遺꾨━맂 꽭洹 닔룄 媛먯냼븯뒗뜲 씠뒗 몢 湲곌 궗씠쓽 젙닔湲 愿由 二쇨린 諛 젙룄媛 李⑥씠媛 엳湲 븣臾몄씠씪 깮媛곷맂떎. 슂빟븯硫 遺꾨━맂 꽭洹좎 삩닔蹂대떎 깋닔뿉꽌 洹몃━怨 쓲瑜대뒗 臾쇰낫떎 닔룄瑗吏 궡遺 꽭洹좎씠 엳뒗 寃쎌슦媛 留롮븯쑝硫, 湲곗삩怨 뒿룄媛 넂 뿬由꾩쿋뿉 뜑 留롮 꽭洹좎씠 遺꾨━릺뒗 寃쏀뼢쓣 蹂댁떎. 洹몃━怨 젙닔湲 닔룄瑗吏 愿由 젙룄뿉 뵲씪 遺꾨━릺뒗 꽭洹 닔룄 李⑥씠瑜 蹂댁떎. 븳렪 젙닔湲 궗슜 湲곌컙씠 留롮씠 吏궃 諛⑺븰 썑 寃泥대 梨꾩랬븳 寃껋씠 꽭洹 닔 利앷쓽 썝씤씠 맆 닔뒗 엳吏留(Heo, 2012; Seo et al., 2009)媛 엳뼱 씠踰 떎뿕 젙닔湲 궡쓽 臾쇰낫떎 닔룄瑗吏뿉 臾살뼱 엳뒗 洹좎쓣 寃異쒗븯湲 븣臾몄뿉 媛뒫꽦 뼥뼱吏 寃껋씠떎.

젙닔湲곗뿉꽌 遺꾨━맂 洹좎 떆媛꾩뿉 뵲씪 珥덇린 떎뿕(2018뀈 諛 2019뀈 1썡)뿉꽌뒗 깮솕븰쟻 諛⑸쾿(API kit Vitek system)쓣 씠슜븯쑝굹 洹 솗씤쓽 븳怨꾧 엳뼱 2019뀈 9썡 씠썑뿉뒗 MALDI-TOF MS 諛⑸쾿쑝濡 洹좊챸쓣 솗씤븯떎. 2018뀈 API kit濡 솗씤븯쓣 븣 7醫낆쓽 洹몃엺뼇꽦洹좉낵 5醫낆쓽 洹몃엺쓬꽦洹좎씠 솗씤릺뿀쑝硫 씠以 5醫낆씠 냽 닔以(genus level)뿉꽌留 솗씤릺뿀떎. 洹몃━怨 2019뀈 Vitek-2 system쑝濡 솗씤븳 寃곌낵 4醫낆쓽 洹몃엺뼇꽦洹좉낵 5醫낆쓽 洹몃엺쓬꽦洹좎씠 솗씤릺뿀뒗뜲 씠以 5醫낆씠 냽 닔以(genus level)뿉꽌留 솗씤릺뿀떎(Table 4). 씠 湲곌컙 룞븞 遺꾨━맂 洹 以 듅씠븷 留뚰븳 궗빆 遺遺꾩쓽 洹좎 옄뿰솚寃쎌뿉 議댁옱븯뒗 蹂묒썝꽦씠 궙 꽭洹좎씠뿀쑝굹 Staphylococcus aureus (Kwiecinski and Horswill, 2020) 諛 Acinetobacter baumanii (Dijkshoorn et al., 2007) 媛숈씠 蹂묒썝꽦씠 넂怨 궗엺뿉꽌 媛먯뿼쓣 씪쑝궗 닔 엳뒗 꽭洹좊뱾룄 遺꾨━릺뿀떎.

깮솕븰쟻 솗씤 諛⑸쾿쑝濡쒕뒗 옄뿰솚寃쎌뿉꽌 二쇰줈 遺꾨━릺뒗 떎뼇븳 꽭洹좎쓣 솗씤븯뒗뜲 븳怨꾧 엳뼱 2019뀈 9썡遺꽣 젅씠濡 꽭洹좎쓽 떒諛깆쭏 벑 bio-molecule쓣 soft ionization븯뿬 議곌컖궃 mass瑜 吏덈웾 遺꾩꽍湲곕줈 寃異쒗븯뿬 洹좊쭏떎 諛쒖깮븯뒗 룆듅븳 吏덈웾 뒪럺듃읆(mass spectrum)쓣 湲곗〈쓽 李멸퀬 洹좎<쓽 뒪럺듃읆怨 鍮꾧탳븯뿬 洹좎쓣 솗씤븯뒗 MALDI-TOF MS濡 꽭洹좎쓣 솗씤븯떎(Croxatto et al., 2012). 솗씤 寃곌낵 2019뀈뿉뒗 10醫낆쓽 洹몃엺뼇꽦洹좉낵 13醫낆쓽 洹몃엺쓬꽦洹좎쓣 醫 닔以(species level)源뚯 솗씤븷 닔 엳뿀쑝硫, 2023뀈뿉뒗 7醫낆쓽 洹몃엺뼇꽦洹좉낵 2醫낆쓽 洹몃엺쓬꽦洹좎쓣 솗씤븷 닔 엳뿀떎(Table 5). MALDI-TOF MS뒗 꽭洹좎쓽 醫 닔以源뚯 젙솗븯寃 븣 닔 엳쑝誘濡 2019뀈 諛 2023뀈쓽 젙닔湲 臾쇱뿉꽌 삤뿼맂 꽭洹좊뱾씠 씤泥 궡뿉꽌 媛먯뿼쓣 씪쑝궓 삁 諛 臾명뿄쓣 젙蹂 寃깋(Pubmed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov)쓣 넻빐 븣븘蹂댁븯떎. 遺遺꾩씠 洹좎 넗뼇씠굹 吏몴닔 媛숈 옄뿰솚寃쎌뿉꽌 遺꾨━릺뒗 蹂묒썝꽦씠 궙 꽭洹좎씠뿀쑝굹 씪遺쓽 洹좎 硫댁뿭씠 媛먯냼븳 궗엺뿉꽌 媛먯뿼쓽 蹂닿퀬媛 엳뿀떎. 洹몃엺뼇꽦洹 以 씤泥 媛먯뿼씠 蹂닿퀬맂 洹좎쥌뿉뒗 Microbacterium testaceum (Gneiding et al., 2008), Tsukamurella paurometabola (Yamaguchi et al., 2023), Arthrobacter woluwensis (Kyeong et al., 2006) 벑씠 엳뿀쑝硫 洹몃엺뼇꽦 삉湲곗꽦 洹 以 Clostridium novyi뒗 궗엺쓽 옣궡뿉 議댁옱븯뒗 꽭洹좎쑝濡 떎뼇븳 toxin쓣 깮꽦븷 닔 엳쑝硫, 긽泥 媛먯뿼, gas gangrene 벑쓣 씪쑝궗 닔 엳떎怨 蹂닿퀬릺怨 엳떎(Watanabe et al., 2019). 洹몃엺쓬꽦 媛꾧퇏 以 씤泥 媛먯뿼씠 蹂닿퀬맂 洹좎쥌뿉뒗 Acinetobacter nosocomialis (Liu et al., 2017), Acinetobacter tandoii (Tian et al., 2018), Brevundimonas aurantiaca (Soto et al., 2022), Comamonas kerstersii (Opota et al., 2014), Pseudomonas alcaligenes (Ono et al., 2023) 벑쓣 李얠쓣 닔 엳뿀떎.

寃곕줎쟻쑝濡 蹂 뿰援щ뒗 2媛 븰뿉 꽕移섎맂 젙닔湲곗쓽 誘몄깮臾 삤뿼 긽깭 꽭洹좏븰쟻 듅꽦쓣 蹂닿퀬옄 븯떎. 議곗궗븳 遺遺꾩쓽 젙닔湲곕뒗 깋닔 닔룄瑗吏 깋닔뿉꽌 뿀슜 湲곗移 씠긽쓽 씪諛 꽭洹좎씠 遺꾨━릺뿀쑝硫, 遺꾨━맂 洹좎 遺遺 옄뿰솚寃쎌뿉꽌 遺꾨━릺뒗 蹂묒썝꽦씠 궙 꽭洹좎씠뿀吏留 궗엺뿉꽌 媛먯뿼쓣 씪쑝궗 닔 엳뒗 湲고쉶媛먯뿼洹좊룄 씪遺 젙닔湲곗뿉꽌 遺꾨━맖씠 솗씤릺뿀떎. 뵲씪꽌 젙遺 湲곌 삉뒗 愿젴 湲곗뾽뿉꽌뒗 젙닔湲 냼룆 諛 愿由 洹몃━怨 媛먯떆뿉 븳 뾼寃⑺븳 踰뺤쓽 젣젙肉먮쭔 븘땲씪 쟻젅븳 냼룆 諛 愿由 諛⑸쾿뿉 븳 援먯쑁씠 븘슂븯硫, 젙닔湲 궗슜 湲곌뿉꽌뒗 異붽쟻씤 닔룄瑗吏쓽 二쇨린쟻씤 냼룆 諛 嫄댁“ 긽깭瑜 쑀吏빐빞 븷 寃껋쑝濡 뙋떒맂떎.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

None.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The author declare no conflict of interest

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